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ACO designs cutting-edge commercial websites with a genuine focus on generating demand. We develop websites that detect and respond to buying signals throughout the customer journey. Nurturing prospects to convert their early interest into qualified sales opportunities.

To achieve this we use HTML5, CSS and JavaScript and either PHP or Ruby on Rails along with Responsive Web Design techniques to deliver a first class web experience on any device. And we always adhere to internationally recognised W3C standards. Would you expect anything less?


We help people shop for products and services online with minimal navigation or effort. Making it easy for customers to make a buying decision with you. The results will lead to a significant increase in sales and profits. Driving up customer satisfaction levels and loyalty in the process.

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While website functionality has increased considerably, there are still many situations where higher levels of security, offline availability or a more complex interaction with the user may be required. In these cases, a web application may be more appropriate.

Our team of world-class developers has been building custom web applications to run business critical processes for years. Why not talk to us today? And find out how we can turn your most ambitious and innovative ideas into reality

Mars Moon Space TV – DENMARK

Thomas Mikey Jensen
Moon Mars Space TV


MARS CONFERENCE an ACCLAIMED SUCCESS by Thomas Mikey Jensen, Denmark TV Producer.

praise enthusiastically and publicly.
“the conference was acclaimed as a considerable success”


Thomas was born in 1977 and is the father of 1 boy (now 8 year old.)

He had his first alien sighting at about 5 years old and first UFO very close encounter at 8 year old.

Thomas have always had an interest in the universe all the way back from childhood.

Already as 6 years ld, he went out to look for UFO´s after dark in the backyard.

He went to primary school as everyone else, and had 9 (from the old exam grade 03-13) in nuclear physics.

When he left school he wanted to be a scientist an work with space shuttles and equipment used in space, But realized very quick that he was born in the wrong country.

After he “woke up” he became road supervisor, and spent 3 years on that subject while he still was searching for life in the universe in his spare time.After that he spent 13 years in the haulage

business as self employed..

After a smaller operation his left ear (he was born deaf on his left ear) he realized that hauling business was dead and start working for a power and heat plant in Copenhagen operating heavy machinery, where he was for 6 month until economical issues forced the plant to cut down on extra employees from the company that he was working for.

All the time through all of this he did research, read, watched, and studied what could be found on the internet about UFO´s anomalies mars moon space etc etc etc.

The topic Mars Moon Space has been bounded to him since childhood, therefore Mars Moon Space Photo Zoom Club was an ideal name for his Facebook group that he founded in 2014.

Much of his work with enhancement of anomalies on various NASA images, has been shared around the world by various news sites and used by many other researches for conference material videos and articles.

Thomas founded the United Family of Anomaly Hunters together with his good friend Billy Carson, and gathered some of the best anomaly hunters and their work on a page via Facebook (Search for UFAH)

UFAH has now grown as an organization that has gathered more than 30.000 images of anomalies,and is to be found on Wikipedia

and has delivered material for documentaries as “UFO’s From Outer Space” by Jose Escamilla.


The groups and pages below are all group that he either created or have an admin role in.

Thomas’s page

Mars Moon Space TV

Thomas’s group

Mars Moon Space Photo Zoom Club

Thomas’s group

Mars Moon Space VIP Club

Co founded by Thomas


Wana We Are Not Alone

The Ocean Explorer

Mars discoveries and solar system anomalies

Mars Anomaly Research Society

Mars Moon Space TV recommend Patty Greer and her website

If you haven’t seen her movies….  Then its about time !!

If you really want to know the truth about crop circles and orbs…. Then you know where to find it !!


Mars-Moon-Space Con Mobile, AL May 2017

Mars Moon Space TV
The 6th Annual MARS Conference

The 6th annual MARS Conference 2017. Will be held at the University of South Alabama in May 2017.

Speakers are

Andrew D. Basiago

Sasha Alex Lessin and

Janet Kira Lessin

William White Crow

Billy Carson

Thomas Mikey Jensen

Bret Colin Sheppard and

Karen Christine Patrick

Ken Johnston

Host and speaker

Lewis Michael Rhinehart

This conference will be held at the University of South Alabama in Mobile.

307 N. University Blvd. #130,

Mobile, AL 36608,


Attending the conference both days:

100 Dollars.

Note that this does not include meals at the university,

Meals are 20 dollars for both days.

February discount .  Buy now and save 25 dollars for the 2 day ticket to 8 speakers !

Speakers this year will Be

Andrew D. Basiago

Janet Lessin and Sasha Alex Lessin

William White Crow

Billy Carson

Thomas Mikey Jensen

Donate 75 Dollars and become a VIP guest.  Being a VIP at the conference includes Lunch (both days) at the University, dinner with the speakers after the conference (both days), and access to the 3rd day gathering with the speakers inclusive dinner at the host Lewis Michael Rhineharts home in relaxed surroundings.

Host and speaker

Lewis Michael Rhinehart

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Donate 75 Dollars and become a VIP guest. Being a VIP at the conference includes Lunch (both days) at the University, dinner with the speakers after the conference (both days), and access to the 3rd day gathering with the speakers, inclusive dinner at the host Lewis Michael Rhineharts home in relaxed surroundings.

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The 6th Annual MARS Conference 2017

Tentative agenda:

Day one: Saturday, 6 May, 2017.

9:00 am – 11:00 am: Andrew D. Basiago – The Discovery of Life on Mars/The Egypt-Mars Connection

11am – 1pm: Sasha and Janet Kira Lessin – Annunaki/Egypt/Mars

1:00pm-1:30pm – Lunch

1:30pm – 3:30pm: Billy Carson – The Annunaki and Mars

3:30pm – 5:30pm: Lewis Michael Rhinehart – The living Mars.

6:00 – ? VIP’s only.  Dinner with the Speakers at a local restaurant.

Day Two: Sunday, 7 May, 2017.

9:00 am – 11:00 am: William White Crow – My experiences on the Red Planet

11:00 am – 1:00 pm: Bret Colin Sheppard and Karen Christine Patrick – The Dimensions of Mars

1:00 pm – 1:30pm: Lunch

1:30pm – 3:30pm: Ken Johnston – The Mars/Moon Connection

3:30pm – 5pm: Thomas Mikey Jensen – Mars seen from the rovers

5:30 – ? VIP’s only. Dinner with the speakers at a local restaurant

Day three: Monday 8 May 2017  VIP’s only

Private gathering with the speakers at the host Lewis Michael Rhinehart’s home

with opportunity for photos, private discussions, in relaxed surroundings followed up by dinner later.

Donate 75 Dollars and become a VIP guest.  Being a VIP at the conference includes Lunch (both days) at the University, dinner with the speakers after the conference (both days), and access to the 3rd day gathering with the speakers inclusive dinner at the host Lewis Michael Rhineharts home in relaxed surroundings.

Mars Moon Space Con Mobile AL MAY 2017

Thomas Mikey Jensen
Moon Mars Space TV
Thomas Mikey Jensen


Thomas was born in 1977 and is the father of 1 boy (now 8 year old.)

He had his first alien sighting at about 5 years old and first UFO very close encounter at 8 year old.

Thomas have always had an interest in the universe all the way back from childhood.

Already as 6 years ld, he went out to look for UFO´s after dark in the backyard.

He went to primary school as everyone else, and had 9 (from the old exam grade 03-13) in nuclear physics.

When he left school he wanted to be a scientist an work with space shuttles and equipment used in space, But realized very quick that he was born in the wrong country.

After he “woke up” he became road supervisor, and spent 3 years on that subject while he still was searching for life in the universe in his spare time.After that he spent 13 years in the haulage

business as self employed..

After a smaller operation his left ear (he was born deaf on his left ear) he realized that hauling business was dead and start working for a power and heat plant in Copenhagen operating heavy machinery, where he was for 6 month until economical issues forced the plant to cut down on extra employees from the company that he was working for.

All the time through all of this he did research, read, watched, and studied what could be found on the internet about UFO´s anomalies mars moon space etc etc etc.

The topic Mars Moon Space has been bounded to him since childhood, therefore Mars Moon Space Photo Zoom Club was an ideal name for his Facebook group that he founded in 2014.

Much of his work with enhancement of anomalies on various NASA images, has been shared around the world by various news sites and used by many other researches for conference material videos and articles.

Thomas founded the United Family of Anomaly Hunters together with his good friend Billy Carson, and gathered some of the best anomaly hunters and their work on a page via Facebook (Search for UFAH)

UFAH has now grown as an organization that has gathered more than 30.000 images of anomalies,and is to be found on Wikipedia

and has delivered material for documentaries as “UFO’s From Outer Space” by Jose Escamilla.


The groups and pages below are all group that he either created or have an admin role in.

Thomas’s page

Mars Moon Space TV

Thomas’s group

Mars Moon Space Photo Zoom Club

Thomas’s group

Mars Moon Space VIP Club

Co founded by Thomas


Wana We Are Not Alone

The Ocean Explorer

Mars discoveries and solar system anomalies

Mars Anomaly Research Society

Lewis Michael Rhinhart
Event Organizer
Mobile, Alabama
The 6th Annual MARS Conference

The 6th annual MARS Conference 2017. Will be held at the University of South Alabama in May 2017.

Speakers are

Andrew D. Basiago

Sasha Alex Lessin and

Janet Kira Lessin

William White Crow

Billy Carson

Thomas Mikey Jensen

Bret Colin Sheppard and

Karen Christine Patrick

Ken Johnston

Host and speaker

Lewis Michael Rhinehart

LINK TO THE 6th Annual Moon Mars Space Event in USA

Theresa Morris

TJ Morris Media





Theresa J Morris
Ascension Center
Church Non-Denominational
Cosmos Radios
Peer Review Journal
John Titor, John Titor II
Dana Lee Stern Sr.
Theresa J Morris
Time Travel Stories
American Community Online USA

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Theresa J Morris
Theresa J Morris
Owner TJ Morris Media
TJ Morris dba ACIR
TJ Morris Media
Analyst-Consultants-Investigative Reporters
by Theresa J Morris
TJ Morris Member BMI
TJ Morris ACO
TJ Morris Media
Entertainment RADIO Network
Ascension Center Org
TJ Morris Publishing
Timely Manor Books

Cosmos Connection with TJ Morris in USA

Cosmos Connection

Theresa J Morris
TJ Morris dba ACIR
TJ Morris Media
Cosmos Radios

Theresa J Morris

American Communication Internet Research

TJ Morris dba ACIR

3406 Green Briar Court

Gulf Breeze, FL 32563


There is much I do not know. I am searching for those who have similar interests and express themselves interested in subjects that may deal with our humanity in the cosmos as one of many species who are of extraterrestrial intelligence. The topics I share in this paper or simply to add what research we may be sharing together on the internet online in our cyberspace world which we are co-creating in my lifetime. I am now sixty-five years old and am sharing some of my time looking for others who may want to share life and compare notes. I am a paranormal researcher and a writer. I look for ways to express our future together in our many peer groups online. Most of my time is spent finding out about the psyche and phenomenology dealing with those who come and go in my life from other places in space meaning extraterrestrials.

Keywords:  cosmology, faster than light, extraterrestrials, psyche, phenomenology, metaphysics.

Cosmos Connection


Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos “world” and -λογία, -logia “study of”) is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe, as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities. (Cosmology, n.d.) Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:

•What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)

•What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)

•What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe?


Physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. Physical cosmology was shaped through both mathematics and observation in an analysis of the whole universe. The universe is generally understood to have begun with the Big Bang, followed almost instantaneously by cosmic inflation; an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago, Cosmogony studies the origin of the Universe, and cosmography maps the features of the Universe.

In Diderot’s Encyclopédie, cosmology is broken down into uranology (the science of the heavens), aerology (the science of the air), geology (the science of the continents), and hydrology (the science of waters).

Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exemplified by Marcus Aurelius’s observation that a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.”

Physical cosmology            Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on a large scale. In its earliest form, it was what is now known as “celestial mechanics”, the study of the heavens. Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle, and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. The geocentric Ptolemaic system was the prevailing theory until the 16th century when Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, proposed a heliocentric system. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.

When Isaac Newton published the Principia Mathematica in 1687, he finally figured out how the heavens moved.                                    Religious or mythological cosmology            Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation and eschatology.

Philosophical cosmology            Cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases, was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use metaphysical cosmology addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods like dialectics  (Cosmology, n.d.)

Historical cosmologies

Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant; Λ (Lambda) is the cosmological constant. (Cosmology, n.d.)

Philosophy or Science: I. Science of God. — II. Science of Man. — III. Science of Nature. I. The natural progress of the human mind is to rise from individuals to species, from species to genera, from closely related properties have been examined, and from them has been created ontology, or the science of being in general.  Therefore, we have had, in an inverted order, first ontology; then the science of the spirit, or pneumatology, or what is commonly called particular metaphysics.  And that science is divided into the science of God or natural theology, which it has pleased God to correct and to sanctify by Revelation, whence comes religion and theology proper; whence through abuse comes superstition.  Into doctrine of good and evil spirits, or of angels and of demons; whence comes divination and the chimera of black magic.  Into the science of the soul, which has been subdivided into science of the reasonable soul, which conceives, and science of the feeling soul, which is limited to sensations. II.  Science of Man.  The divisions of the science of man are derived from the divisions of his faculties. The principal faculties of man are the understanding and the will; the understanding, which it is necessary to direct toward  (Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge, n.d.)genera to distantly related ones, and to create a science at each step; or at least to add a new branch to some science already in existence. Thus, the concept, which we meet in history and which sacred history announces to us, of an uncreated and infinite intelligence, etc., and that of the created, finite intelligence united to a body which we observe in man and which we suppose in the brute, have led us to the concept of a created, finite intelligence having no body; and from there to the general notion of the spirit. Moreover, since the general properties of beings, spiritual as well as corporeal, are existence, possibility, duration, substance, attribute, etc., these (Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge, n.d.)

The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective is a book by Carl Sagan, produced by Jerome Agel. It was originally published in 1973; an expanded edition with contributions from Freeman Dyson, David Morrison, and Ann Druyan was published in 2000 under the title Carl Sagan’s Cosmic Connection. The book contains artwork by Jon Lomberg and other artists.                                                                            Author    Carl Sagan                                                                                    First published    2000                                                                                    Genre    Science                                                                                    Genus    Science

Sagan covers several topics, and focusses mainly on the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence, the likelihood of the existence of more advanced civilizations, and their distribution in the local galaxy, and in the universe. He describes the hypothetical opinions of more advanced intelligences and their views of the Earth, as well as communication with mankind. He also discusses the popularity of UFO sightings and attempts mathematically to portray the probability of such events. Sagan also discusses his view of astrology as a pseudoscience. Contact is a 1997 American science fiction drama film directed by Robert Zemeckis. It is a film adaptation of Carl Sagan’s 1985 novel of the same name; Sagan and his wife Ann Druyan wrote the story outline for the film.                                                                            Director    Robert Zemeckis                                                                                    Gross revenue    $171.10 Million USD                                                                                    Screenwriter    James V. Hart, Michael Goldenberg                                                                                    Story by    Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan                                                                                    Awards    Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Saturn Award for Best Actress, Saturn Award for Best Performance by a Younger Actor/Actress, Satellite Award for Best Visual Effects, ASCAP Film and Television Music Award for Top Box Office Films                                                                                    Release year    1997                                                                                    Genre    Drama


Dr. Ellie Arroway (Jodie Foster) works for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) program at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Fascinated by science and communication since she was a child, she listens to radio emissions from space hoping to find evidence of alien life. Science Advisor to the President David Drumlin (Tom Skerrett) pulls the funding from SETI because he believes the endeavor is futile. Arroway gains backing from secretive billionaire industrialist S. R. Hadden (John Hurt), which allows her to continue the project at the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico.

Four years later, with Drumlin seeking to close SETI, Arroway discovers a signal repeating a sequence of prime numbers, apparently sent from the star system Vega some 26 light-years away. This announcement causes Drumlin and the National Security Council led by Michael Kitz (James Woods), to attempt to take control of the facility. Arroway’s team then discover a video buried in the signal: Adolf Hitler’s opening address at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Arroway and her team postulate that this would have been the first television signal strong enough to leave Earth’s atmosphere, taking 26 years to reach Vega and then transmitted back from there.

The project is put under tight security and its progress followed worldwide. Arroway learns that the signal also contains more than 60,000 pages of indecipherable data. The reclusive Hadden secretly meets with Arroway to provide the means to decode the pages, found when they are arranged in three dimensions rather than two-dimensional pages. The pages reveal schematics for a complex machine which is determined to be transport for a single occupant.

The nations of the world fund the construction of the machine at Cape Canaveral. An international panel is assembled to choose a candidate to travel in the machine. Although Arroway is a frontrunner to go, her hopes are skippered by Christian philosopher Palmer Joss (Matthew McConaughey), a panel member whom Arroway met in Puerto Rico and had a brief romantic encounter. When he brings attention to her atheism, the panel selects Drumlin instead on the belief he would be more representative of humanity. However, on the day the machine is tested, a religious fanatic (Jake Busey) destroys the machine in a suicide bombing, killing Drumlin and many others.

A cancer-stricken Hadden, now in residence on the Mir space station, reveals to Arroway that a second machine was secretly made in Japan, and that Arroway will be the one to go. Outfitted with several recording devices, Arroway enters the machine’s pod which is then dropped into four rapidly spinning rings causing the pod to apparently travel through a series of wormholes. Arroway sees a radio array-like structure at Vega and signs of an advanced civilization on another planet. (Contact, n.d.)


Production                                                                        Development            Carl Sagan conceived the idea for Contact in 1979. The same year, Lynda Obst, one of Sagan’s closest friends, was hired by film producer Peter Guber to be a studio executive for his production company, Casablanca FilmWorks. She pitched Guber the idea for Contact, who commissioned a development deal. Sagan and Ann Druyan (who later became his wife) wrote a 100+ page film treatment, finishing in November 1980. Druyan explained, “Carl’s and my dream was to write something that would be a fictional representation of what contact would actually be like, that would convey something of the true grandeur of the universe.” They added the science and religion analogies as a metaphor of philosophical and intellectual interest in searching for the truth of both humanity and alien contact.

Sagan incorporated Kip Thorne’s study of wormhole space travel into the screenplay. The characterization of Dr. Ellie Arroway was inspired by Dr.                                    Filming            Principal photography began on September 24, 1996, and ended on February 28, 1997. The first shooting took place at the Very Large Array (VLA) near Socorro, New Mexico. “Shooting at the VLA was, of course, spectacular but also one of the most difficult aspects of our filming,” producer Steve Starkey said. “It is a working facility, so for us to accomplish shots for the movie, we had to negotiate with the National Science Foundation for ‘dish control’ in order to move the dishes in the direction we needed to affect the most dramatic shot for the story.” After arduous first weeks of location shooting in New Mexico and Arizona, production for Contact returned to Los Angeles for five months’ worth of location and sound stage shooting that used a total of nine soundstages at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, and Culver Studios. Altogether, the art department created more than 25 sets.                                    Visual effects            Designing Contact’s visual effects sequences was a joint effort among eight separate VFX companies. This team included Sony Pictures Imageworks, Peter Jackson’s Weta Digital, George Lucas’ Industrial Light & Magic, and Effects Associates, with Pixar’s RenderMan used for CGI rendering. Weta Digital, in particular, was responsible for designing the wormhole sequence. Jodie Foster admitted she had difficulty with blue screen technology because it was a first for the actress. “It was a blue room. Blue walls, blue roof. It was just blue, blue, blue,” Foster explained. “And I was rotated on a Lazy Susan with the camera moving on a computerized arm. It was really tough.”

News footage of then-President Bill Clinton was digitally altered to make it appear as if he is speaking about alien contact. This was not the original plan for the film; Zemeckis had initially approached Sidney Poitier to play the president, but the actor turned the role down in favor of The Jackal.                                    Music            The original score was composed by Alan Silvestri, most of which was released on August 19, 1997, by Warner Bros. Records. The full score is approximately an hour long, 44 minutes of which is on the CD, including every major cue. The CD track entitled “Good to Go” features a slightly different opening—a brief brass motif that is not in the film—but all other cues are identical in orchestration to the mix in the film.

The Region 2 Special Edition DVD release contains a 5.1 isolated score track, which presents the complete score (this feature, as with many isolated scores, is not mentioned in most product descriptions of the DVD). (Contact, n.d.)


Bill Clinton  A meteorite was found in Antarctica in 1984, thought to be from Mars. CNN            Shortly after the White House’s complaint, CNN chairman, president, and CEO Tom Johnson announced he believed that in hindsight it was a mistake to allow 13 members of CNN’s on-air staff (including Larry King and Bernard Shaw) to appear in the film, even though both CNN and Warner Bros. are owned by Time Warner. Johnson added that, for Contact, the CNN presence “creates the impression that we’re manipulated by Time Warner, and it blurs the line.” CNN then changed their policies for future films, which now requires potential appearances to be cleared through their ethics group.

Lawsuits            Director George Miller, who had developed Contact with Warner Bros. before Zemeckis’ hiring, unsuccessfully sued the studio over breach of contract policies.

During filming on December 28, 1996, filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola filed a lawsuit against Warner Bros. and Sagan, who had died the previous week. Coppola claimed that Sagan’s novel was based on a story the pair had developed for a television special back in 1975, titled First Contact. Under their development agreement, Coppola and Sagan were to split proceeds from the project, as well as from any novel Sagan would write, with American Zoetrope and Children’s Television Workshop Productions. The TV program was never produced, but in 1985, Simon and Schuster published Contact and Warner moved forward with development of a film adaptation. Coppola sought at least $250,000 in compensatory damages and an injunction against production or distribution of the film.

NASA            The scene where the NASA scientists give Arroway the “cyanide pill” caused some controversy during production and when the film came out. Gerald D. Griffin, the film’s NASA advisor, insisted that NASA has never given any astronaut a cyanide pill “just in case,” and that if an astronaut truly wished to commit suicide in space, all he or she would have to do is cut off their oxygen supply. However, Carl Sagan insisted that NASA did indeed give out cyanide pills and they did it for every mission an astronaut has ever flown. Zemeckis said that because of the two radically different assertions, the truth is unknown, but he left the suicide pill scene in the movie as it seemed more suspenseful that way and it was also in line with Sagan’s beliefs and vision of the film. Along with being NASA Technical Consultant for the project, Griffin had a cameo in the role of “Dynamics” in Mission Control. He had previously been technical advisor for Ron Howard’s 1995 film Apollo 13. (Contact, n.d.)


Quantum entanglement

Photons: the quantisation of light                                            In 1905, Albert Einstein took an extra step. He suggested that quantisation was not just a mathematical construct, but that the energy in a beam of light actually occurs in individual packets, which are now called photons. The energy of a single photon is given by its frequency multiplied by Planck’s constant:







{\displaystyle E=hf}

For centuries, scientists had debated between two possible theories of light: was it a wave or did it instead comprise a stream of tiny particles? By the 19th century, the debate was generally considered to have been settled in favor of the wave theory, as it was able to explain observed effects such as refraction, diffraction, interference and polarization. James Clerk Maxwell had shown that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. Maxwell’s equations, which are the complete set of laws of classical electromagnetism, describe light as waves: a combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Because of the preponderance of evidence in favor of the wave theory, Einstein’s ideas were met initially with great skepticism. Eventually, however, the photon model became favored. One of the most significant pieces of evidence in its favor was its ability to explain several puzzling properties of the photoelectric effect, described in the following section. Nonetheless, the wave analogy remained indispensable for helping to understand other characteristics of light: diffraction, refraction and interference.

The photoelectric effect            In 1887, Heinrich Hertz observed that when light with sufficient frequency hits a metallic surface, it emits electrons. In 1902, Philipp Lenard discovered that the maximum possible energy of an ejected electron is related to the frequency of the light, not to its intensity: if the frequency is too low, no electrons are ejected regardless of the intensity. Strong beams of light toward the red end of the spectrum might produce no electrical potential at all, while weak beams of light toward the violet end of the spectrum would produce higher and higher voltages. The lowest frequency of light that can cause electrons to be emitted, called the threshold frequency, is different for different metals.                                    Consequences of the light being quantized            The relationship between the frequency of electromagnetic radiation and the energy of each individual photon is why ultraviolet light can cause sunburn, but visible or infrared light cannot. A photon of ultraviolet light will deliver a high amount of energy – enough to contribute to cellular damage such as occurs in a sunburn. A photon of infrared light will deliver a lower amount of energy – only enough to warm one’s skin. So, an infrared lamp can warm a large surface, perhaps large enough to keep people comfortable in a cold room, but it cannot give anyone a sunburn.

All photons of the same frequency have identical energy, and all photons of different frequencies have proportionally (order 1, Ephoton = hf ) different energies. However, although the energy imparted by photons is invariant at any given frequency, the initial energy state of the electrons in a photoelectric device prior to absorption of light is not necessarily uniform. (Introduction to quantum mechanics, n.d.)            The quantization of matter: the Bohr model of the atom                                            By the dawn of the 20th century, evidence required a model of the atom with a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. These properties suggested a model in which the electrons circle around the nucleus like planets orbiting a sun. However, it was also known that the atom in this model would be unstable: according to classical theory, orbiting electrons are undergoing centripetal acceleration, and should therefore give off electromagnetic radiation, the loss of energy also causing them to spiral toward the nucleus, colliding with it in a fraction of a second.

A second, related, puzzle was the emission spectrum of atoms. When a gas is heated, it gives off light only at discrete frequencies. For example, the visible light given off by hydrogen consists of four different colors, as shown in the picture below. The intensity of the light at different frequencies is also different. By contrast, white light consists of a continuous emission across the whole range of visible frequencies. By the end of the nineteenth century, a simple rule known as Balmer’s formula had been found which showed how the frequencies of the different lines were related to each other, though without explaining why this was, or making any prediction about the intensities. The formula also predicted some additional spectral lines in ultraviolet and infrared light which had not been observed at the time. These lines were later observed experimentally, raising confidence in the value of the formula.

In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed a new model of the atom that included quantized electron orbits: electrons still orbit the nucleus much as planets orbit around the sun, but they are only permitted to inhabit certain orbits, not to orbit at any distance. When an atom emitted (or absorbed) energy, the electron did not move in a continuous trajectory from one orbit around the nucleus to another, as might be expected classically. Instead, the electron would jump instantaneously from one orbit to another, giving off the emitted light in the form of a photon. The possible energies of photons given off by each element were determined by the differences in energy between the orbits, and so the emission spectrum for each element would contain several lines.

Starting from only one simple assumption about the rule that the orbits must obey, the Bohr model could relate the observed spectral lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen to previously known constants. In Bohr’s model the electron simply wasn’t allowed to emit energy continuously and crash into the nucleus: once it was in the closest permitted orbit, it was stable forever. Bohr’s model didn’t explain why the orbits should be quantized in that way, nor was it able to make accurate predictions for atoms with more than one electron, or to explain why some spectral lines are brighter than others. (Introduction to quantum mechanics, n.d.)at both ends and can be made to vibrate. The waves created by a stringed instrument appear to oscillate in place, moving from crest to trough in an up-and-down motion. The wavelength of a standing wave is related to the length of the vibrating object and the boundary conditions. For example, because the violin string is fixed at both ends, it can carry standing waves of wavelengths 2l/n, where l is the length and n is a positive integer. De Broglie suggested that the allowed electron orbits were those for which the circumference of the orbit would be an integer number of wavelengths.            Spin

In 1922, Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach shot silver atoms through an (inhomogeneous) magnetic field. In classical mechanics, a magnet thrown through a magnetic field may be, depending on its orientation (if it is pointing with its northern pole upwards or down, or somewhere in between), deflected a small or large distance upwards or downwards. The atoms that Stern and Gerlach shot through the magnetic field acted in a similar way. However, while the magnets could be deflected variable distances, the atoms would always be deflected a constant distance either up or down. This implied that the property of the atom which corresponds to the magnet’s orientation must be quantized, taking one of two values (either up or down), as opposed to being chosen freely from any angle.

Ralph Kronig originated the idea that particles such as atoms or electrons behave as if they rotate, or “spin”, about an axis. Spin would account for the missing magnetic moment and allow two electrons in the same orbital to occupy distinct quantum states if they “spun” in opposite directions, thus satisfying the exclusion principle. The quantum number represented the sense (positive or negative) of spin.

The choice of orientation of the magnetic field used in the Stern-Gerlach experiment is arbitrary. In the animation shown here, the field is vertical and so the atoms are deflected either up or down. If the magnet is rotated a quarter turn, the atoms will be deflected either left or right. Using a vertical field shows that the spin along the vertical axis is quantized, and using a horizontal field shows that the spin along the horizontal axis is quantized.

If, instead of hitting a detector screen, one of the beams of atoms coming out of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus is passed into another (inhomogeneous) magnetic field oriented in the same direction, all the atoms will be deflected the same way in this second field. However, if the second field is oriented at 90° to the first, then half of the atoms will be deflected one way and half the other, so that the atom’s spin about the horizontal and vertical axes are independent of each other. However, if one of these beams (e.g. the atoms that were deflected up then left) is passed into a third magnetic field, oriented the same way as the first, half of the atoms will go one way and half the other, even though they all went in the same direction originally. The action of measuring the atoms’ spin with respect to a horizontal field has changed their spin with respect to a vertical field.

The Stern-Gerlach experiment demonstrates several important features of quantum mechanics:

  • a feature of the natural world has been demonstrated to be quantized, and only able to take certain discrete values
  • particles possess an intrinsic angular momentum that is closely analogous to the angular momentum of a classically spinning object
  • measurement changes the system being measured in quantum mechanics. Development of modern quantum mechanics In 1925, Werner Heisenberg attempted to solve one of the problems that the Bohr model left unanswered, explaining the intensities of the different lines in the hydrogen emission spectrum. Through a series of mathematical analogies, he wrote out the quantum mechanical analogue for the classical computation of intensities. Shortly afterwards, Heisenberg’s colleague Max Born realized that Heisenberg’s method of calculating the probabilities for transitions between the different energy levels could best be expressed by using the mathematical concept of matrices.

In the same year, building on de Broglie’s hypothesis, Erwin Schrödinger developed the equation that describes the behavior of a quantum mechanical wave. The mathematical model, called the Schrödinger equation after its creator, is central to quantum mechanics, defines the permitted stationary states of a quantum system, and describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time. The wave itself is described by a mathematical function known as a “wave function”. Schrödinger said that the wave function provides the “means for predicting probability of measurement results”.

Schrödinger could calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atoms electron as a classical wave, moving in a well of electrical potential created by the proton. This calculation accurately reproduced the energy levels of the Bohr model.

In May 1926, Schrödinger proved that Heisenberg’s matrix mechanics and his own wave mechanics made the same predictions about the properties and behavior of the electron; mathematically, the two theories had an underlying common form. Yet the two men disagreed on the interpretation of their mutual theory. For instance, Heisenberg accepted the theoretical prediction of jumps of electrons between orbitals in an atom, but Schrödinger hoped that a theory based on continuous wave-like properties could avoid what he called (as paraphrased by Wilhelm Wien) “this nonsense about quantum jumps. “atomic orbitals. An orbital is the “cloud” of possible locations in which an electron might be found, a distribution of probabilities rather than a precise location. Each orbital is three dimensional, rather than the two-dimensional orbit, and is often depicted as a three-dimensional region within which there is a 95 percent probability of finding the electron.

Schrödinger could calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atoms electron as a wave, represented by the “wave function” Ψ, in an electric potential well, V, created by the proton. The magnetic moment associated with the electron’s spin, and found the experimentally observed value, which was too large to be that of a spinning charged sphere governed by classical physics. He could solve for the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom, and to reproduce from physical first principles Sommerfeld’s successful formula for the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.

Dirac’s equations sometimes yielded a negative value for energy, for which he proposed a novel solution: he posited the existence of an antielectron and of a dynamical vacuum. This led to the many-particle quantum field theory.            Quantum entanglement                                            The Pauli exclusion principle says that two electrons in one system cannot be in the same state. Nature leaves open the possibility, however, that two electrons can have both states “superimposed” over each of them. Recall that the wave functions that emerge simultaneously from the double slits arrive at the detection screen in a state of superposition. Nothing is certain until the superimposed waveforms “collapse”. At that instant, an electron shows up somewhere in accordance with the probability that is the square of the absolute value of the sum of the complex-valued amplitudes of the two superimposed waveforms. The situation there is already very abstract. A concrete way of thinking about entangled photons, photons in which two contrary states are superimposed on each of them in the same event, is as follows:

Imagine that the superposition of a state that can be mentally labeled as blue and another state that can be mentally labeled as red will then appear (in imagination, of course) as a purple state. Two photons are produced as the result of the same atomic event. Perhaps they are produced by the excitation of a crystal that characteristically absorbs a photon of a certain frequency and emits two photons of half the original frequency. So, the two photons come out “purple.” If the experimenter now performs some experiment that will determine whether one of the photons is either blue or red, then that experiment changes the photon involved from one having a superposition of “blue” and “red” characteristics to a photon that has only one of those characteristics. The problem that Einstein had with such an imagined situation was that if one of these photons had been kept bouncing between mirrors in a laboratory on earth, and the other one had traveled halfway to the nearest star, when its twin was made to reveal itself as either blue or red, that meant that the distant photon now had to lose its “purple” status too. So, whenever it might be investigated after its twin had been measured, it would necessarily show up in the opposite state to whatever its twin had revealed.

In trying to show that quantum mechanics was not a complete theory, Einstein started with the theory’s prediction that two or more particles that have interacted in the past can appear strongly correlated when their various properties are later measured. He sought to explain this seeming interaction in a classical way, through their common past, and preferably not by some “spooky action at a distance.” The argument is worked out in a famous paper, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (1935; abbreviated EPR), setting out what is now called the EPR paradox. Assuming what is now usually called local realism, EPR attempted to show from quantum theory that a particle has both position and momentum simultaneously, while per the Copenhagen interpretation, only one of those two properties exists and only now that it is being measured.            Quantum field theory                                            The idea of quantum field theory began in the late 1920s with British physicist Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field – a procedure for constructing a quantum theory starting from a classical theory.

A field in physics is “a region or space in which a given effect (such as magnetism) exists.” Other effects that manifest themselves as fields are gravitation and static electricity. In 2008, physicist Richard Hammond wrote that

Sometimes we distinguish between quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). QM refers to a system in which the number of particles is fixed, and the fields (such as the electromechanical field) are continuous classical entities. QFT … goes a step further and allows for the creation and annihilation of particles . . ..

He added, however, that quantum mechanics is often used to refer to “the entire notion of quantum view.”:108

In 1931, Dirac proposed the existence of particles that later became known as antimatter. Dirac shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1933 with Schrödinger, “for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory.”

On its face, quantum field theory allows infinite numbers of particles, and leaves it up to the theory itself to predict how many and with which probabilities or numbers they should exist. When developed further, the theory often contradicts observation, so that its creation and annihilation operators can be empirically tied down. Furthermore, empirical conservation laws like that of mass-energy suggest certain constraints on the mathematical form of the theory, which are mathematically speaking finicky. The latter fact both serves to make quantum field theories difficult to handle, but has also lead to further restrictions on admissible forms of the theory; the complications are mentioned below under the rubrik of renormalization. Slightly from what they would otherwise be. Thus, spectral lines may shift or split.

Similarly, within a freely propagating electromagnetic wave, the current can also be just an abstract displacement current, instead of involving charge carriers. In QED, its full description makes essential use of short lived virtual particles. There, QED again validates an earlier, rather mysterious concept. Additionally, the Standard Model contains a high-energy unification of the electroweak theory with the strong force, described by quantum chromodynamics. It also postulates a connection with gravity yet another gauge theory, but the connection is as of 2015 still poorly understood. The theory’s prediction of the Higgs particle to explain inertial mass has stood recent empirical tests at the Large hadron collider, and thus the Standard model is now considered the basic and complete description of particle physics as we know it.

Interpretations                                            The physical measurements, equations, and predictions pertinent to quantum mechanics are all consistent and hold a very high level of confirmation. However, the question of what these abstract models say about the underlying nature of the real world has received competing answers.

Applications of quantum mechanics include the laser, the transistor, the electron microscope, and magnetic resonance imaging. A special class of quantum mechanical applications is related to macroscopic quantum phenomena such as superfluid helium and superconductors. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor, which are indispensable for modern electronics. In even the simple light switch, quantum tunneling is vital, as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up of a layer of oxide. Flash memory chips found in USB drives also use quantum tunneling, to erase their memory cells.


Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communication and travel refer to the propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light. Under the special theory of relativity, a particle (that has rest mass) with subluminal velocity needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate to the speed of light, although special relativity does not prohibit the existence of particles that travel faster than light always (tachyons).

FTL travel of non-information

FTL is the transmission of information or matter faster than c, a constant equal to the speed of light in a vacuum, which is 299,792,458 m/s (of the meter) or about 186,282.397 miles per second. This is not quite the same as traveling faster than light, since:

  • Some processes propagate faster than c, but cannot carry information (see examples in the sections immediately following).
  • Light travels at speed c/n when not in a vacuum but travelling through a medium with refractive index = n (causing refraction), and in some materials other particles can travel faster than c/n (but still slower than c), leading to Cherenkov radiation (see phase velocity below).

Neither of these phenomena violates special relativity or creates problems with causality, and thus neither qualifies as FTL as described here.

In the following examples, certain influences may appear to travel faster than light, but they do not convey energy or information faster than light, so they do not violate special relativity.

Daily sky motion            For an Earthbound observer, objects in the sky complete one revolution around the Earth in 1 day. Proxima Centauri, which is the nearest star outside the solar system, is about 4 light-years away. On a geostationary view, Proxima Centauri has a speed many times greater than c as the rim speed of an object moving in a circle is a product of the radius and angular speed. It is also possible on a geostatic view for objects such as comets to vary their speed from subluminal to superluminal and vice versa simply because the distance from the Earth varies. Comets may have orbits which take them out to more than 1000 AU. The circumference of a circle with a radius of 1000 AU is greater than one light day. In other words, a comet at such a distance is superluminal in a geostatic, and therefore non-inertial, frame.

Light spots and shadows            If a laser beam is swept across a distant object, the spot of laser light can easily be made to move across the object at a speed greater than c. Similarly, a shadow projected onto a distant object can be made to move across the object faster than c. In neither case does the light travel from the source to the object faster than c, nor does any information travel faster than light.

Apparent FTL propagation of static field effects            Since there is no “retardation” (or aberration) of the apparent position of the source of a gravitational or electric static field when the source moves with constant velocity, the static field “effect” may seem at first glance to be “transmitted” faster than the speed of light. However, uniform motion of the static source may be removed with a change in reference frame, causing the direction of the static field to change immediately, at all distances. This is not a change of position which “propagates”, and thus this change cannot be used to transmit information from the source. No information or matter can be FTL-transmitted or propagated from source to receiver/observer by an electromagnetic field.

Closing speeds            The rate at which two objects in motion in a single frame of reference get closer together is called the mutual or closing speed. This may approach twice the speed of light, as in the case of two particles travelling at close to the speed of light in opposite directions with respect to the reference frame.

Imagine two fast-moving particles approaching each other from opposite sides of a particle accelerator of the collider type. The closing speed would be the rate at which the distance between the two particles is decreasing. From the point of view of an observer standing at rest relative to the accelerator, this rate will be slightly less than twice the speed of light.

Special relativity does not prohibit this. It tells us that it is wrong to use Galilean relativity to compute the velocity of one of the particles, as would be measured by an observer traveling alongside the other particle. That is, special relativity gives the right formula for computing such relative velocity.                                    Proper speeds            If a spaceship travels to a planet one light-year (as measured in the Earth’s rest frame) away from Earth at high speed, the time taken to reach that planet could be less than one year as measured by the traveler’s clock (although it will always be more than one year as measured by a clock on Earth). The value obtained by dividing the distance traveled, as determined in the Earth’s frame, by the time taken, measured by the traveler’s clock, is known as a proper speed or a proper velocity. There is no limit on the value of a proper speed as a proper speed does not represent a speed measured in a single inertial frame. A light signal that left the Earth at the same time as the traveler would always get to the destination before the traveler.

Possible distance away from Earth            Since one might not travel faster than light, one might conclude that a human can never travel further from the Earth than 40 light-years if the traveler is active between the age of 20 and 60. A traveler would then never be able to reach more than the very few star systems which exist within the limit of 20–40 light-years from the Earth. This is a mistaken conclusion: because of time dilation, the traveler can travel thousands of light-years during their 40 active years. If the spaceship accelerates at a constant 1 g (in its own changing frame of reference), it will, after 354 days, reach speeds a little under the speed of light (for an observer on Earth), and time dilation will increase their lifespan to thousands of Earth years, seen from the reference system of the Solar System, but the traveler’s subjective lifespan will not thereby change. If the traveler returns to the Earth, they will land thousands of years into the Earth’s future.                                    Phase velocities above c            The phase velocity of an electromagnetic wave, when traveling through a medium, can routinely exceed c, the vacuum velocity of light. For example, this occurs in most glasses at X-ray frequencies. However, the phase velocity of a wave corresponds to the propagation speed of a theoretical single-frequency (purely monochromatic) component of the wave at that frequency. Such a wave component must be infinite in extent and of constant amplitude (otherwise it is not truly monochromatic), and so cannot convey any information. Thus, a phase velocity above c does not imply the propagation of signals with a velocity above c.

Group velocities above c            The group velocity of a wave (e.g., a light beam) may also exceed c in some circumstances. In such cases, which typically at the same time involve rapid attenuation of the intensity, the maximum of the envelope of a pulse may travel with a velocity above c. However, even this situation does not imply the propagation of signals with a velocity above c, even though one may be tempted to associate pulse maxima with signals. The latter association has been shown to be misleading, because the information on the arrival of a pulse can be obtained before the pulse maximum arrives. For example, if some mechanism allows the full transmission of the leading part of a pulse while strongly attenuating the pulse maximum and everything behind (distortion), the pulse maximum is effectively shifted forward in time, while the information on the pulse does not come faster than c without this effect.                                    Universal expansion            The expansion of the universe causes distant galaxies to recede from us faster than the speed of light, if proper distance and cosmological time are used to calculate the speeds of these galaxies. However, in general relativity, velocity is a local notion, so velocity calculated using comoving coordinates does not have any simple relation to velocity calculated locally. (See comoving distance for a discussion of different notions of ‘velocity’ in cosmology.) Rules that apply to relative velocities in special relativity, such as the rule that relative velocities cannot increase past the speed of light, do not apply to relative velocities in comoving coordinates, which are often described in terms of the “expansion of space” between galaxies.                                    Astronomical observations            Apparent superluminal motion is observed in many radio galaxies, blazars, quasars and recently also in micro quasars. The effect was predicted before it was observed by Martin Rees and can be explained as an optical illusion caused by the object partly moving in the direction of the observer, when the speed calculations assume it does not. The phenomenon does not contradict the theory of special relativity. Corrected calculations show these objects have velocities close to the speed of light (relative to our reference frame). They are the first examples of large amounts of mass moving at close to the speed of light. Earth-bound laboratories have only been able to accelerate small numbers of elementary particles to such speeds. Superfluid theories of physical vacuum            In this approach the physical vacuum is viewed as the quantum superfluid which is essentially non-relativistic whereas the Lorentz symmetry is not an exact symmetry of nature but rather the approximate description valid only for the small fluctuations of the superfluid background. Within the framework of the approach a theory was proposed in which the physical vacuum is conjectured to be the quantum Bose liquid whose ground-state wave function is described by the logarithmic Schrödinger equation. It was shown that the relativistic gravitational interaction arises as the small-amplitude collective excitation mode whereas relativistic elementary particles can be described by the particle-like modes in the limit of low momenta.

Metaphysics  central questions as in “Being and ontology”

Ontology deals with the determination whether categories of being are fundamental and discusses in what sense the items in those categories may be said to “be”. It is the inquiry into being in so much as it is being (“being qua being”), or into beings insofar as they exist—and not insofar as (for instance) particular facts may be obtained about them or particular properties belong to them.

Most ontologies assume or assert the existence of categories including objects, properties, space and time. Immediate questions arising from this include the nature of objects. Only properties can be observed directly, so what does it mean for an object to exist and to possess them if we can never observe an object directly? How can we be sure that such objects exist at all?

The word “is” has two distinct uses in English, separated out in ontology.                                    Identity and change

Identity is a fundamental metaphysical issue. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what, exactly, it means for something to be identical to itself. Other issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity? And how does the reality of identity interface with linguistic expressions?

The metaphysical positions one takes on identity has far-reaching implications on issues such as the mind-body problem, personal identity, and ethics, and law.

The ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change.                                    Causality and time            Classical philosophy recognized a number of causes, including teleological future causes. In special relativity and quantum field theory the notions of space, time and causality become tangled together, with temporal orders of causations becoming dependent on who is observing them. The laws of physics are symmetrical in time, so could equally well be used to describe time as running backwards. Why then do we perceive it as flowing in one direction, the arrow of time, and as containing causation flowing in the same direction?

Causality is usually required as a foundation for philosophy of science, if science aims to understand causes and effects and make predictions about them.

Necessity and possibility            Metaphysicians investigate questions about the ways the world could have been. David Lewis, in “On the Plurality of Worlds,” endorsed a view called Concrete Modal realism, per which facts about how things could have been are made true by other concrete worlds, just as in ours, in which things are different. Other philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz, have dealt with the idea of possible worlds as well. The idea of necessity is that any necessary fact is true across all possible worlds. A possible fact is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world. For example, it is possible that cats could have had two tails, or that any apple could have not existed. By contrast, certain propositions seem necessarily true, such as analytic propositions, e.g., “All bachelors are unmarried.” The particular example of analytic truth being necessary is not universally held among philosophers.                                    Cosmology and cosmogony            Metaphysical cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. Historically, it has had a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks drew no distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern times it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of the physical sciences. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics).

Cosmogony deals specifically with the origin of the universe. Modern metaphysical cosmology and cosmogony try to address questions such as:

  • What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Mind and matter  The nature of matter was a problem in its own right in early philosophy. Aristotle himself introduced the idea of matter in general to the Western world, adapting the term hyle, which originally meant “lumber.” Early debates centered on identifying a single underlying principle. Water was claimed by Thales, air by Anaximenes, Apeiron (the Boundless) by Anaximander, fire by Heraclitus. Democritus, in conjunction with his mentor, Leucippus, conceived of an atomic theory many centuries before it was accepted by modern science. It is worth noting, however, that the grounds necessary to ensure validity to the proposed theory’s veridical nature were not scientific, but just as philosophical as those traditions espoused by Thales and Anaximander.

The nature of the mind and its relation to the body has been seen as more of a problem as science has progressed in its mechanistic understanding of the brain and body.                                    Determinism and free will            Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. It holds that nothing happens that has not already been determined. The principal consequence of the deterministic claim is that it poses a challenge to the existence of free will.

The problem of free will is the problem of whether rational agents exercise control over their own actions and decisions. Addressing this problem requires understanding the relation between freedom and causation, and determining whether the laws of nature are causally deterministic. Some philosophers, known as Incompatibilists, view determinism and free will as mutually exclusive. If they believe in determinism, they will therefore believe free will to be an illusion, a position known as Hard Determinism. Proponents range from Baruch Spinoza to Ted Honderich.                                    Religion and spirituality            Some of the primary metaphysical questions concerning religious philosophy are: whether there is a god (monotheism), many gods (polytheism), or no gods (atheism), or whether it is unknown or unknowable if any gods exist (agnosticism and apophatic theology); whether a divine entity directly intervenes in the world (theism) or its sole function is to be the first cause of the universe (deism); and whether a god or gods and the world are different (as in panentheism and dualism) or are identical (as in pantheism).

Stances on these questions can form the foundation for philosophy of religion and theology, but the metaphysical questions are prior to these disciplines.

The existence of god is sometimes assumed or required by ontologies in order to avoid problems of subjectivity and relativism.

Metaphysics in science

Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as natural philosophy. Originally, the term “science” (Latin scientia) simply meant “knowledge”. The scientific method, however, transformed natural philosophy into an empirical activity deriving from experiment unlike the rest of philosophy. By the end of the 18th century, it had begun to be called “science” to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics denoted philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence.

Metaphysics continues asking “why” where science leaves off. For example, any theory of fundamental physics is based on some set of axioms, which may postulate the existence of entities such as atoms, particles, forces, charges, mass, and/or fields. Stating such postulates is considered to be the “end” of a science theory. Metaphysics takes these postulates and explores what they mean as human concepts. For example, do all theories of physics require the existence of space and time, objects, and properties? Or can they be expressed using only objects, or only properties? Do the objects have to retain their identity over time or do they change? If they change, then are they still the same object? Can theories be reformulated by converting properties or predicates (such as “red”) into entities (such as redness or redness fields). Is the distinction between objects and properties fundamental to the physical world and/or to our perception of it?

Much recent work has been devoted to analyzing the role of metaphysics in scientific theorizing. Alexandre Koyré led this movement, declaring in his book Metaphysics and Measurement, “It is not by following experiment, but by outstripping experiment, that the scientific mind makes progress.” Imre Lakatos maintained that all scientific theories have a metaphysical “hard core” essential for the generation of hypotheses and theoretical assumptions. Thus, according to Lakatos, “scientific changes are connected with vast cataclysmic metaphysical revolutions.”

An example from biology of Lakatos’ thesis: David Hull has argued that changes in the ontological status of the species concept have been central in the development of biological thought from Aristotle through Cuvier, Lamarck, and Darwin. Darwin’s ignorance of metaphysics made it more difficult for him to respond to his critics because he could not readily grasp the ways in which their underlying metaphysical views differed from his own.

In physics, new metaphysical ideas have arisen in connection with quantum mechanics, where subatomic particles arguably do not have the same sort of individuality as the particulars with which philosophy has traditionally been concerned.

History and schools of metaphysics

Pre-history            Cognitive archeology such as analysis of cave paintings and other pre-historic art and customs suggests that a form of perennial philosophy or Shamanism metaphysics may stretch back to the birth of behavioral modernity, all around the world. Similar beliefs are found in present day “stone age” cultures such as Australian aboriginals. Perennial philosophy postulates the existence of a spirit or concept world alongside the day-to-day world, and interactions between these worlds during dreaming and ritual, or on special days or at special places. It has been argued that perennial philosophy formed the basis for Platonism, with Plato articulating, rather than creating, much older widespread beliefs.

Bronze age            Bronze age cultures such as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt (along with similarly structured but chronologically later cultures such as Mayans and Aztecs) developed belief systems based on mythology, anthropomorphic gods, mind-body dualism, and a spirit world to explain causes and cosmology. These cultures appear to have been interested in astronomy and may have associated or identified the stars with some of these entities. In ancient Egypt, the ontological distinction between order (maat) and chaos (Isfet) seems to have been important.

Pre-Socratic Greece            The first named Greek philosopher, according to Aristotle, is Thales of Miletus, c.500BCE. Rejecting mythological and divine explanations, he sought a single first cause or Arche (origin or beginning) under which all phenomena could be explained, and concluded that this first cause was in fact moisture or water. Thales also taught that the world is harmonious, has a harmonious structure, and thus is intelligible to rational understanding. Other Miletians, such as Anaximander and Anaximenes, also had a monistic conception of the first cause.

Another school was the Eleatics, Italy. The group was founded in the early fifth century BCE by Parmenides, and included Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos. Methodologically, the Eleatics were broadly rationalist, and took logical standards of clarity and necessity to be the criteria of truth. Parmenides’ chief doctrine was that reality is a single unchanging and universal Being.                                    Chinese metaphysics            Metaphysics in Chinese philosophy can be traced back to the earliest Chinese philosophical concepts from the Zhou Dynasty such as Tian (Heaven) and Yin and Yang. The fourth century BCE saw a turn towards cosmogony with the rise of Taoism (in the Daodejing and Zhuangzi) and sees the natural world as dynamic and constantly changing processes which spontaneously arise from a single immanent metaphysical source or principle (Tao). Another philosophical school which arose around this time was the School of Naturalists which saw the ultimate metaphysical principle as the Taiji, the “supreme polarity” composed of the forces of Ying and Yang which were always in a state of change seeking balance. Another concern of Chinese metaphysics, especially Taoism, is the relationship and nature of Being and non-Being (you 有 and wu 無). The Taoists held that the ultimate, the Tao, was also non-being or no-presence.

Socrates and Plato            Socrates is known for his dialectic or questioning approach to philosophy rather than a positive metaphysical doctrine.

His pupil, Plato is famous for his theory of forms (which he places in the mouth of Socrates in the dialogues he wrote to expound it). Platonic realism (also considered a form of idealism) is considered to be a solution to the problem of universals; i.e., what particular objects have in common is that they share a specific Form which is universal to all others of their respective kind.

The theory has a number of other aspects:

  • Epistemological: knowledge of the Forms is more certain than mere sensory data.
  • Ethical: The Form of the Good sets an objective standard for morality.
  • Time and Change: The world of the Forms is eternal and unchanging. Time and change belong only to the lower sensory world. “Time is a moving image of Eternity”.
  • Abstract objects and mathematics: Numbers, geometrical figures, etc., exist mind-independently in the World of Forms.

Aristotle            Plato’s pupil Aristotle wrote widely on almost every subject, including metaphysics. His solution to the problem of universals contrasts with Plato’s. Whereas Platonic Forms are existentially apparent in the visible world, Aristotelian essences dwell in particulars.

Potentiality and Actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used throughout his philosophical works to analyze motion, causality and other issues.

The Aristotelian theory of change and causality stretches to four causes: the material, formal, efficient and final. The efficient cause corresponds to what is now known as a cause simpliciter. Final causes are explicitly teleological, a concept now regarded as controversial in science. The Matter/Form dichotomy was to become highly influential in later philosophy as the substance/essence distinction.

The opening arguments in Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Book I, revolve around the senses, knowledge, experience, theory, and wisdom.

Classical India            Sāṃkhya is an ancient system of Indian philosophy based on a dualism involving the ultimate principles of consciousness and matter. It is described as the rationalist school of Indian philosophy. It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and its method was most influential on the development of Early Buddhism.

The Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These include pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).

Samkhya is strongly dualist. Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities; puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). Jiva (a living being) is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakṛti in some form.

Buddhist metaphysics            In Buddhist philosophy there are various metaphysical traditions that have proposed different questions about the nature of reality based on the teachings of the Buddha in the early Buddhist texts. The Buddha of the early texts does not focus on metaphysical questions but on ethical and spiritual training and in some cases, he dismisses certain metaphysical questions as unhelpful and indeterminate (avyakata), which he recommends should be set aside. The development of systematic metaphysics arose after the Buddha’s death with the rise of the Abhidharma traditions. The Buddhist Abhidharma schools developed their analysis of reality based on the concept of dharmas which are the ultimate physical and mental events that make up experience and their relations to each other.

Islamic metaphysics            Islamic philosophy was highly active during Europe’s ‘dark ages’, beginning with the arrival and translation of Aristotle into Arabic.

Scholasticism and the Middle Ages            Between about 1100 and 1500, philosophy as a discipline took place as part of the Catholic church’s teaching system, known as scholasticism. Scholastic philosophy took place within an established framework blending Christian theology with Aristotelian teachings. Although fundamental orthodoxies could not be challenged, there were nonetheless deep metaphysical disagreements, particularly over the problem of universals, which engaged Duns Scotus and Pierre Abelard. William of Ockham is remembered for his principle of ontological parsimony.


Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life, also called alien life (or, if it is a sentient or relatively complex individual, an “extraterrestrial” or “alien”), is life that does not originate from Earth. These as-yet-hypothetical life forms may range from simple bacteria-like organisms to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity. Although many scientists expect extraterrestrial life to exist, there is no unambiguous evidence for its existence so far. The science of extraterrestrial life is known as exobiology


Alien life, such as microorganisms, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe. This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth. This argument is embodied in the Copernican principle, which states that Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, and the mediocrity principle, which states that there is nothing special about life on Earth. The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old. Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the universe. Alternatively, life may have formed less frequently, then spread—by meteoroids, for example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. In any case, complex organic molecules may have formed in the protoplanetary disk of dust grains surrounding the Sun before the formation of Earth. According to these studies, this process may occur outside Earth on several planets and moons of the Solar System and on planets of other stars.

Since the 1950s, scientists have argued the idea that “habitable zones” around stars are the most likely places to find life. Numerous discoveries in these zones since 2007 have generated estimations of frequencies of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition— numbering in the many billions though as of 2013, only a small number of planets have been discovered in these zones. Nonetheless, on 4 November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way, 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars. The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists. Astrobiologists have also considered a “follow the energy” view of potential habitats. (Extraterrestrial life, n.d.)


Possible basis

Biochemistry            Life on Earth requires water as its solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. More generally, life based on ammonia (rather than water) has been suggested, though this solvent appears less suitable than water. It is also conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbon, such as methane, ethane or propane.

Planetary habitability in the Solar System

Some bodies in the Solar System have the potential for an environment in which extraterrestrial life can live, particularly those with possible subsurface oceans. Should life be discovered elsewhere in the Solar System, astrobiologists suggest that it will more likely be in the form of extremophile microorganisms.

Mars may have niche subsurface environments where microbial life might exist. A subsurface marine environment on Jupiter’s moon Europa might be the most likely habitat in the Solar System, outside Earth, for extremophile microorganisms.

The panspermia hypothesis proposes that life elsewhere in the Solar System may have a common origin. If extraterrestrial life was found on another body in the Solar System, it could have originated from Earth just as life on Earth could have been seeded from elsewhere (exogenesis). The first known mention of the term ‘panspermia’ was in the writings of the 5th century BC Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. In the 19th century it was again revived in modern form by several scientists, including Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1834), Kelvin (1871), Hermann von Helmholtz (1879) and, somewhat later, by Svante Arrhenius (1903). Sir Fred Hoyle (1915–2001) and Chandra Wickramasinghe (born 1939) are important proponents of the hypothesis who further contended that life forms continue to enter Earth’s atmosphere, and may be responsible for epidemic outbreaks, new diseases, and the genetic novelty necessary for macroevolution.

Directed panspermia concerns the deliberate transport of microorganisms in space, sent to Earth to start life here, or sent from Earth to seed new stellar systems with life. The Nobel prize winner Francis Crick, along with Leslie Orgel proposed that seeds of life may have been purposely spread by an advanced extraterrestrial civilization, but considering an early “RNA world” Crick noted later that life may have originated on Earth.

Venus            In the early 20th century, Venus was often thought to be similar to Earth in terms of habitability, but observations since the beginning of the Space Age have revealed that Venus’s surface is inhospitable to Earth-like life. However, between an altitude of 50 and 65 kilometers, the pressure and temperature are Earth-like, and it has been hypothesised that aerial microbial life could exist. Furthermore, Venus likely had liquid water on its surface for at least a few million years after its formation.

Mars            Life on Mars has been long speculated. Liquid water is widely thought to have existed on Mars in the past, and now can occasionally be found as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil. The origin of the potential biosignature of methane observed in Mars’ atmosphere is unexplained, although hypotheses not involving life have also been proposed. By July 2008, laboratory tests aboard NASA’s Phoenix Mars lander had identified water in a surface soil sample. Photographs from the Mars Global Surveyor from 2006 showed evidence of recent (i.e. within 10 years) flows of a liquid on Mars’ frigid surface. There is evidence that Mars had a warmer and wetter past: dried-up river beds, polar ice caps, volcanos, and minerals that form in the presence of water have all been found. Nevertheless, present conditions on Mars’ subsurface may support life.                                    Ceres            Ceres, the only dwarf planet in the asteroid belt, has a thin water-vapor atmosphere. Frost on the surface may also have been detected in the form of bright spots. The presence of water on Ceres has led to speculation that life may be possible there.

Jupiter system            Carl Sagan and others in the 1960s and 1970s computed conditions for hypothetical microorganisms living in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The intense radiation and other conditions, however, do not appear to permit encapsulation and molecular biochemistry, so life there is thought unlikely. In contrast, some of Jupiter’s moons may have habitats capable of sustaining life. Scientists have indications that heated subsurface oceans of liquid water may exist deep under the crusts of the three outer Galilean moons—Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The EJSM/Laplace mission is planned to determine the habitability of these environments.

Jupiter’s moon Europa has been subject to speculation about the existence of life due to the strong possibility of a liquid water ocean beneath its ice surface. Hydrothermal vents on the bottom of the ocean, if they exist, may warm the ice and could be capable of supporting multicellular microorganisms.                                    Saturn system            Titan and Enceladus have been speculated to have possible habitats supportive of life.

Small Solar System bodies            Small Solar System bodies have also been speculated to host habitats for extremophiles. Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe have proposed that microbial life might exist on comets and asteroids.

Other bodies            Models of heat retention and heating via radioactive decay in smaller icy Solar System bodies suggest that Rhea, Titania, Oberon, Triton, Pluto, Eris, Sedna, and Orcus may have oceans underneath solid icy crusts approximately 100 km thick. Of particular interest in these cases is the fact that the models indicate that the liquid layers are in direct contact with the rocky core, which allows efficient mixing of minerals and salts into the water. This is in contrast with the oceans that may be inside larger icy satellites like Ganymede, Callisto, or Titan, where layers of high-pressure phases of ice are thought to underlie the liquid water layer.

Hydrogen sulfide has been proposed as a hypothetical solvent for life and is quite plentiful on Jupiter’s moon Io, and may be in liquid form a short distance below the surface.

(Extraterrestrial life, n.d.)

Scientific search

About 29 chemical elements play an active positive role in living organisms on Earth. About 95% of this living matter is built upon only six elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. These six elements form the basic building blocks of virtually all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts.            The scientific search for extraterrestrial life is being carried out both directly and indirectly.

Scientists search for biosignatures within the Solar System by studying planetary surfaces and examining meteorites. Some claim to have identified evidence that microbial life has existed on Mars. An experiment on the two Viking Mars landers reported gas emissions from heated Martian soil samples that some scientists argue are consistent with the presence of living microorganisms. Lack of corroborating evidence from other experiments on the same samples, indicates that a non-biological reaction is a more likely hypothesis. In 1996, a controversial report stated that structures resembling nanobacteria were discovered in a meteorite, ALH84001, formed of rock ejected from Mars.

Cultural impact

intelligent radio signal after decades of effort has at least partially dimmed the prevailing optimism of the beginning of the space age. Notwithstanding, belief in extraterrestrial beings continues to be voiced in pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, and in popular folklore, notably “Area 51” and legends. It has become a pop culture trope given less-than-serious treatment in popular entertainment. In the words of SETI’s Frank Drake, “All we know for sure is that the sky is not littered with powerful microwave transmitters”. Drake noted that it is entirely possible that advanced technology results in communication being carried out in some way other than conventional radio transmission.

In February 2005, NASA scientists reported that they may have found some evidence of present life on Mars.  Indirect search with projects such as SETI are monitoring the galaxy for electromagnetic interstellar communications from civilizations on other worlds. If there is an advanced extraterrestrial civilization, there is no guarantee that it is transmitting radio communications in the direction of Earth or that this information could be interpreted as such by humans. The length of time required for a signal to travel across the vastness of space means that any signal detected would come from the distant past.

The presence of heavy elements in a star’s light-spectrum is another potential biosignature; such elements would (in theory) be found if the star was being used as an incinerator/repository for nuclear waste products.

Extrasolar planets            Some astronomers search for extrasolar planets that may be conducive to life, narrowing the search to terrestrial planets within the habitable zone of their star. Since 1992 over two thousand exoplanets have been discovered (3,557 planets in 2,668 planetary systems including 601 multiple planetary systems as of 1 January 2017). The extrasolar planets so far discovered range in size from that of terrestrial planets similar to Earth’s size to that of gas giants larger than Jupiter. The number of observed exoplanets is expected to increase greatly in the coming years.

The Kepler space telescope has also detected a few thousand candidate planets, of which about 11% may be false positives.

There is at least one planet on average per star. About 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an “Earth-sized” planet in the habitable zone, with the nearest expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.


In psychology, the psyche /ˈsaɪki/ is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious. Psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche. The word has a long history of use in psychology and philosophy, dating back to ancient times, and represents one of the fundamental concepts for understanding human nature from a scientific point of view. The English word soul is sometimes used synonymously, especially in older texts.


Etymology                                            The basic meaning of the Greek word ψυχή (psūkhē) was “life” in the sense of “breath”, formed from the verb ψύχω (psukhō, “to blow”). Derived meanings included “spirit”, “soul”, “ghost”, and ultimately “self” in the sense of “conscious personality” or “psyche”. Interestingly, associating “spirit” and “breath” is not unique to Greek or western cultures. The Chinese character for “spirit”, “soul” is 魂(hύn, simplified) which is the merging of 云(yύn) and 鬼(guǐ). 云 is commonly used as “clouds” but also as “breath” in expressions such as 吞云吐雾(smoking or vaping). 鬼 is simply “ghost” or “spirit”. The linkage between “spirit” and “breath” were formed by ancient people, who at the time did not have any real contact with one another. One modern animation also seem to understand the concept. Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Legend of Korra. Amongst the four elements, air benders typically have stronger connections to spirits compare to water, fire, earth benders.

Ancient psychology

The idea of the psyche is central to the philosophy of Plato. In his Phaedo, Plato has Socrates give four arguments for the immortality of the soul and life after death following the separation of the soul from the body. Plato’s Socrates also states that after death the Psyche is better able to achieve wisdom and experience the Platonic forms since it is unhindered by the body.

structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. By psyche, I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a “personality”. (Jung, 1971: Def. 48 par. 797)

[The translation of the German word Seele presents almost insuperable difficulties on account of the lack of a single English equivalent and because it combines the two words “psyche” and “soul” in a way not altogether familiar to the English reader. The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote an influential treatise on the psyche, called in Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς (Perì Psūchês), in Latin De Anima and in English On the Soul. Aristotle’s theory of the “three souls (psyches)” (vegetal, animal, and rational) would rule the field of psychology until the 19th century. Prior to Aristotle, a number of Greek writings used the term psyche in a less precise sense. In late antiquity, Galenic medicine developed the idea of three “spirits” (pneuma) corresponding to Aristotle’s three souls. The pneuma psychikon corresponded to the rational soul. The other two pneuma were the pneuma physicon and the pneuma zoticon. Cognitive psychology                                            In recent decades cognitive psychology has replaced psychoanalysis as the dominant school of psychology in academic centres. The word “mind” is preferred by cognitive scientists to “psyche”. (Psyche, n.d.)


Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon “that which appears” and lógos “study”) is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness. As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany. It then spread to France, the United States, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl’s early work. Phenomenology should not be considered as a unitary movement; rather, different authors share a common family resemblance but also with many significant differences. Accordingly, “A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and perhaps even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus. In fact, it is not a doctrine, nor a philosophical school, but rather a style of thought, a method, an open and ever-renewed experience having different results, and this may disorient anyone wishing to define the meaning of phenomenology”. (Phenomenology, n.d.)

  • Overview
  • In its most basic form, phenomenology attempts to create conditions for the objective study of topics usually regarded as subjective: consciousness and the content of conscious experiences such as judgments, perceptions, and emotions. Although phenomenology seeks to be scientific, it does not attempt to study consciousness from the perspective of clinical psychology or neurology. Instead, it seeks through systematic reflection to determine the essential properties and structures of experience.
  • There are several assumptions behind phenomenology that help explain its foundations:
  • It rejects the concept of objective research. Phenomenologists prefer grouping assumptions through a process called phenomenological epoché.
  • Phenomenology believes that analyzing daily human behavior can provide one with a greater understanding of nature.
  • Persons should be explored. This is because persons can be understood through the unique ways they reflect the society they live in.
  • Phenomenologists prefer to gather “capta,” or conscious experience, rather than traditional data.
  • Phenomenology is considered to be oriented on discovery, and therefore phenomenologists gather research using methods that are far less restricting than in other sciences.
  • Husserl derived many important concepts central to phenomenology from the works and lectures of his teachers, the philosophers and psychologists Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf. An important element of phenomenology that Husserl borrowed from Brentano is intentionality (often described as “aboutness”), the notion that consciousness is always consciousness of something. The object of consciousness is called the intentional object, and this object is constituted for consciousness in many different ways, through, for instance, perception, memory, retention and protention, signification, etc. Throughout these different intentionalities, though they have different structures and different ways of being “about” the object, an object is still constituted as the identical object; consciousness is directed at the same intentional object in direct perception as it is in the immediately following retention of this object and the eventual remembering of it.
  • Though many of the phenomenological methods involve various reductions, phenomenology is, in essence, anti-reductionistic; the reductions are mere tools to better understand and describe the workings of consciousness, not to reduce any phenomenon to these descriptions. In other words, when a reference is made to a thing’s essence or idea, or when one details the constitution of an identical coherent thing by describing what one “really” sees as being only these sides and aspects, these surfaces, it does not mean that the thing is only and exclusively what is described here: The ultimate goal of these reductions is to understand how these different aspects are constituted into the actual thing as experienced by the person experiencing it. Historical overview of the use of the term Phenomenology has at least two main meanings in philosophical history: one in the writings of G. W. F. Hegel, another in the writings of Edmund Husserl in 1920, and thirdly, succeeding Husserl’s work, in the writings of his former research assistant Martin Heidegger in 1927.
  • For G. W. F. Hegel, phenomenology is an approach to philosophy that begins with an exploration of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as a means to finally grasp the absolute, logical, ontological and metaphysical Spirit that is behind phenomena. This has been called dialectical phenomenology.
  • For Edmund Husserl, phenomenology is “the reflective study of the essence of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view.” Phenomenology takes the intuitive experience of phenomena (what presents itself to us in phenomenological reflexion) as its starting point and tries to extract from it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. When generalized to the essential features of any possible experience, this has been called transcendental phenomenology (see below). Husserl’s view was based on aspects of the work of Franz Brentano and was developed further by philosophers such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Scheler, Edith Stein, Dietrich von Hildebrand and Emmanuel Levinas.
  • Although the term “phenomenology” was used occasionally in the history of philosophy before Husserl, modern use ties it more explicitly to his particular method. Following is a list of important thinkers in rough chronological order who used the term “phenomenology” in a variety of ways, with brief comments on their contributions:
  • Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (1702–1782), German pietist, for the study of the “divine system of relations”
  • Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777), mathematician, physician and philosopher, known for the theory of appearances underlying empirical knowledge.
  • Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), in the Critique of Pure Reason, distinguished between objects as phenomena, which are objects as shaped and grasped by human sensibility and understanding, and objects as things-in-themselves or noumena, which do not appear to us in space and time and about which we can make no legitimate judgments.
  • G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831) challenged Kant’s doctrine of the unknowable thing-in-itself, and declared that by knowing phenomena more fully we can gradually arrive at a consciousness of the absolute and spiritual truth of Divinity, most notably in his Phenomenology of Spirit, published in 1807.
  • Carl Stumpf (1848–1936), student of Brentano and mentor to Husserl, used “phenomenology” to refer to an ontology of sensory contents.
  • Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) established phenomenology at first as a kind of “descriptive psychology” and later as a transcendental and eidetic science of consciousness.

Varieties of phenomenology

The Encyclopedia of Phenomenology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, Dordrecht and Boston) features separate articles on the following seven types of phenomenology: (1) Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies how objects are constituted in transcendental consciousness, setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world. (2) Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology (see naturalism) studies how consciousness constitutes things in the world of nature, assuming with the natural attitude that consciousness is part of nature. (3) Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence, including our experience of free choice and/or action in concrete situations. (4) Generative historicist phenomenology (see historicism) studies how meaning—as found in our experience—is generated in historical processes of collective experience over time. (5) Genetic phenomenology studies the emergence/genesis of meanings of things within one’s own stream of experience. (6) Hermeneutical phenomenology (also hermeneutic phenomenology or post-phenomenology/postphenomenology elsewhere; see hermeneutics) studies interpretive structures of experience. (7) Realistic phenomenology (also realist phenomenology elsewhere) studies the structure of consciousness and intentionality as “it occurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness and not somehow brought into being by consciousness.”

The contrast between “constitutive phenomenology” (German: konstitutive Phänomenologie; also static phenomenology (statische Phänomenologie)) or descriptive phenomenology (beschreibende Phänomenologie)) and “genetic phenomenology” (genetische Phänomenologie; also phenomenology of genesis (Phänomenologie der Genesis)) is due to Husserl.

Modern scholarship also recognizes the existence of the following varieties: late Heidegger’s transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology (see transcendental philosophy), Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s embodied phenomenology (see embodied cognition), and Michel Henry’s material phenomenology. (Phenomenology, n.d.)

Modern scholarship also recognizes the existence of the following varieties: late Heidegger’s transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology (see transcendental philosophy), Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s embodied phenomenology (see embodied cognition), and Michel Henry’s material phenomenology.

Phenomenological terminology


Intentionality refers to the notion that consciousness is always the consciousness of something. The word itself should not be confused with the “ordinary” use of the word intentional, but should rather be taken as playing on the etymological roots of the word. Originally, intention referred to a “stretching out” (“in tension,” from Latin intendere), and in this context it refers to consciousness “stretching out” towards its object. However, one should be careful with this image: there is not some consciousness first that, subsequently, stretches out to its object; rather, consciousness occurs as the simultaneity of a conscious act and its object.

Intentionality is often summed up as “aboutness.” Whether this something that consciousness is about is in direct perception or in fantasy is inconsequential to the concept of intentionality itself; whatever consciousness is directed at, that is what consciousness is conscious of.                                    Intuition            Intuition in phenomenology refers to those cases where the intentional object is directly present to the intentionality at play; if the intention is “filled” by the direct apprehension of the object, you have an intuited object. Having a cup of coffee in front of you, for instance, seeing it, feeling it, or even imagining it – these are all filled intentions, and the object is then intuited. The same goes for the apprehension of mathematical formulae or a number. If you do not have the object as referred to directly, the object is not intuited, but still intended, but then emptily. Examples of empty intentions can be signitive intentions – intentions that only imply or refer to their objects.  Evidence in everyday language, we use the word evidence to signify a special sort of relation between a state of affairs and a proposition: State A is evidence for the proposition “A is true.” In phenomenology, however, the concept of evidence is meant to signify the “subjective achievement of truth.” This is not an attempt to reduce the objective sort of evidence to subjective “opinion,” but rather an attempt to describe the structure of having something present in intuition with the addition of having it present as intelligible: “Evidence is the successful presentation of an intelligible object, the successful presentation of something whose truth becomes manifest in the evidencing itself.”

Noesis and noema            In Husserl’s phenomenology, which is quite common, this pair of terms, derived from the Greek nous (mind), designate respectively the real content, noesis, and the ideal content, noema, of an intentional act (an act of consciousness). The Noesis is the part of the act that gives it a particular sense or character (as in judging or perceiving something, loving or hating it, accepting or rejecting it, and so on). This is real in the sense that it is actually part of what takes place in the consciousness (or psyche) of the subject of the act. The Noesis is always correlated with a Noema; for Husserl, the full Noema is a complex ideal structure comprising at least a noematic sense and a noematic core. The correct interpretation of what Husserl meant by the Noema has long been controversial, but the noematic sense is generally understood as the ideal meaning of the act and the noematic core as the act’s referent or object as it is meant in the act.   Empathy and intersubjectivity in phenomenology, empathy refers to the experience of one’s own body as another. While we often identify others with their physical bodies, this type of phenomenology requires that we focus on the subjectivity of the other, as well as our intersubjective engagement with them. In Husserl’s original account, this was done by a sort of apperception built on the experiences of your own lived-body. The lived body is your own body as experienced by yourself, as yourself. Your own body manifests itself to you mainly as your possibilities of acting in the world. It is what lets you reach out and grab something, for instance, but it also, and more importantly, allows for the possibility of changing your point of view.                                    Lifeworld

The lifeworld (German: Lebenswelt) is the “world” each one of us lives in. One could call it the “background” or “horizon” of all experience, and it is that on which each object stands out as itself (as different) and with the meaning it can only hold for us. The lifeworld is both personal and intersubjective (it is then called a “homeworld”), and, as such, it does not enclose each one of us in a solus ipse. (Phenomenology, n.d.)

Husserl’s Logische Untersuchungen (1900/1901)

Husserl’s Logische Untersuchungen (1900/1901)                                            In the first edition of the Logical Investigations, still under the influence of Brentano, Husserl describes his position as “descriptive psychology.” Husserl analyzes the intentional structures of mental acts and how they are directed at both real and ideal objects. The first volume of the Logical Investigations, the Prolegomena to Pure Logic, begins with a devastating critique of psychologism, i.e., the attempt to subsume the a priori validity of the laws of logic under psychology. Husserl establishes a separate field for research in logic, philosophy, and phenomenology, independently from the empirical sciences. (Phenomenology, n.d.)

Transcendental phenomenology after the Ideen (1913)

Transcendental phenomenology after the Ideen (1913)                                            Some years after the publication of the Logical Investigations, Husserl made some key elaborations that led him to the distinction between the act of consciousness (noesis) and the phenomena at which it is directed (the noemata).

  • “noetic” refers to the intentional act of consciousness (believing, willing, etc.)
  • “noematic” refers to the object or content (noema), which appears in the noetic acts (the believed, wanted, hated, and loved …).

We observe is not the object as it is in itself, but how and inasmuch it is given in the intentional acts. Knowledge of essences would only be possible by “bracketing” all assumptions about the existence of an external world and the inessential (subjective) aspects of how the object is concretely given to us. This procedure Husserl called epoché.

Husserl in a later period concentrated more on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. As he wanted to exclude any hypothesis on the existence of external objects, he introduced the method of phenomenological reduction to eliminate them. What was left over was the pure transcendental ego, as opposed to the concrete empirical ego. Now Transcendental Phenomenology is the study of the essential structures that are left in pure consciousness: This amounts in practice to the study of the noemata and the relations among them. The philosopher Theodor Adorno criticized Husserl’s concept of phenomenological epistemology in his metacritique Against Epistemology, which is anti-foundationalist in its stance.

Transcendental phenomenologists include Oskar Becker, Aron Gurwitsch, and Alfred Schütz. (Phenomenology, n.d.)

Realist phenomenology

After Husserl’s publication of the Ideen in 1913, many phenomenologists took a critical stance towards his new theories. Especially the members of the Munich group distanced themselves from his new transcendental phenomenology and preferred the earlier realist phenomenology of the first edition of the Logical Investigations.

Realist phenomenologists include Adolf Reinach, Alexander Pfänder, Johannes Daubert (de), Max Scheler, Roman Ingarden, Nicolai Hartmann, Dietrich von Hildebrand.

Existential phenomenology

Existential phenomenology differs from transcendental phenomenology by its rejection of the transcendental ego. Merleau-Ponty objects to the ego’s transcendence of the world, which for Husserl leaves the world spread out and completely transparent before the conscious. Heidegger thinks of a conscious being as always already in the world. Transcendence is maintained in existential phenomenology to the extent that the method of phenomenology must take a presuppositionless starting point – transcending claims about the world arising from, for example, natural or scientific attitudes or theories of the ontological nature of the world.

While Husserl thought of philosophy as a scientific discipline that had to be founded on a phenomenology understood as epistemology, Martin Heidegger held a radically different view. Heidegger himself states their differences this way:

For Husserl, the phenomenological reduction is the method of leading phenomenological vision from the natural attitude of the human being whose life is involved in the world of things and persons back to the transcendental life of consciousness and its noetic-noematic experiences, in which objects are constituted as correlates of consciousness. For us, phenomenological reduction means leading phenomenological vision back from the apprehension of a being, whatever may be the character of that apprehension, to the understanding of the Being of this being (projecting upon the way it is unconcealed).

According to Heidegger, philosophy was not at all a scientific discipline, but more fundamental than science itself. According to him science is only one way of knowing the world with no special access to truth. Furthermore, the scientific mindset itself is built on a much more “primordial” foundation of practical, everyday knowledge. Husserl was skeptical of this approach, which he regarded as quasi-mystical, and it contributed to the divergence in their thinking. Instead of taking phenomenology as prima philosophia or a foundational discipline, Heidegger took it as a metaphysical ontology: “being is the proper and sole theme of philosophy… this means that philosophy is not a science of beings but of being.” Yet to confuse phenomenology and ontology is an obvious error. Phenomena are not the foundation or Ground of Being. Neither are they appearances, for, as Heidegger argues in Being and Time, an appearance is “that which shows itself in something else,” while a phenomenon is “that which shows itself in itself.”

While for Husserl, in the epoché, being appeared only as a correlate of consciousness, for Heidegger being is the starting point.            (Phenomenology, n.d.)

Eastern thought

Some researchers in phenomenology (in particular in reference to Heidegger’s legacy) see possibilities of establishing dialogues with traditions of thought outside of the so-called Western philosophy, particularly with respect to East-Asian thinking, and despite perceived differences between “Eastern” and “Western”. Furthermore, it has been claimed that a number of elements within phenomenology (mainly Heidegger’s thought) have some resonance with Eastern philosophical ideas, particularly with Zen Buddhism and Taoism. According to Tomonobu Imamichi, the concept of Dasein was inspired — although Heidegger remained silent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo’s concept of das-in-der-Welt-sein (being in the world) expressed in The Book of Tea to describe Zhuangzi’s philosophy, which Imamichi’s teacher had offered to Heidegger in 1919, after having studied with him the year before.

There are also recent signs of the reception of phenomenology (and Heidegger’s thought in particular) within scholarly circles focused on studying the impetus of metaphysics in the history of ideas in Islam and Early Islamic philosophy such as in the works of the Lebanese philosopher Nader El-Bizri; perhaps this is tangentially due to the indirect influence of the tradition of the French Orientalist and phenomenologist Henri Corbin, and later accentuated through El-Bizri’s dialogues with the Polish phenomenologist Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka.

In addition, the work of Jim Ruddy in the field of comparative philosophy, combined the concept of Transcendental Ego in Husserl’s phenomenology with the concept of the primacy of self-consciousness in the work of Sankaracharya. In the course of this work, Ruddy uncovered a wholly new eidetic phenomenological science, which he called “convergent phenomenology.” This new phenomenology takes over where Husserl left off, and deals with the constitution of relation-like, rather than merely thing-like, or “intentional” objectivity.


Phenomenological approach to technology            James Moor has argued that computers show up policy vacuums that require new thinking and the establishment of new policies. Others have argued that the resources provided by classical ethical theory such as utilitarianism, consequentialism and deontological ethics is more than enough to deal with all the ethical issues emerging from our design and use of information technology.

For the phenomenologist the ‘impact view’ of technology as well as the constructivist view of the technology/society relationships is valid but not adequate (Heidegger 1977, Borgmann 1985, Winograd and Flores 1987, Ihde 1990, Dreyfus 1992, 2001). They argue that these accounts of technology, and the technology/society relationship, posit technology and society as if speaking about the one does not immediately and already draw upon the other for its ongoing sense or meaning.

Heidegger’s approach (pre-technological age)

For Heidegger the essence of technology is the way of being of modern humans—a way of conducting themselves towards the world—that sees the world as something to be ordered and shaped in line with projects, intentions and desires—a ‘will to power’ that manifests itself as a ‘will to technology’. Heidegger claims that there were other times in human history, a pre-modern time, where humans did not orient themselves towards the world in a technological way—simply as resources for our purposes.

However, according to Heidegger this ‘pre-technological’ age (or mood) is one where humans’ relation with the world and artifacts, their way of being disposed, was poetic and aesthetic rather than technological (enframing). There are many who disagree with Heidegger’s account of the modern technological attitude as the ‘enframing’ of the world. For example, Andrew Feenberg argues that Heidegger’s account of modern technology is not borne out in contemporary everyday encounters with technology.

The Hubert Dreyfus approach (contemporary society)

In critiquing the artificial intelligence (AI) program, Hubert Dreyfus (1992) argues that the way skill development has become understood in the past has been wrong. He argues, this is the model that the early artificial intelligence community uncritically adopted. In opposition to this view, he argues, with Heidegger, that what we observe when we learn a new skill in everyday practice is in fact the opposite. We most often start with explicit rules or preformulated approaches and then move to a multiplicity of particular cases, as we become an expert. His argument draws directly on Heidegger’s account in Being and Time of humans as beings that are always already situated in-the-world. As humans ‘in-the-world’, we are already experts at going about everyday life, at dealing with the subtleties of every particular situation; that is why everyday life seems so obvious.

Cosmos Connection is about how we share our humanity together that will shape our future. Join me and my friends in sharing our stories that are stranger than fiction. We are working together to make the world a better place for those who follow us to this planet. It’s all about being in service to others. I am simple and I want to know how we will teach each other in the advancement of this world with the coming of what is termed the singularity and how we will think about those who will come as looking like human beings and are considered cyborgs. I am a cyborg meaning I have titanium in my neck. That is another future article …

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John Titor & John Titor II by Dana Lee Stern & TJ Morris

ACIR Investigative Journalists Fact or Fiction Programs Unexplained
ACIR Investigative Journalists
Fact or Fiction
Programs Unexplained
ERA Cop  Peer Review Journal John Titor, John Titor II Dana Lee Stern Sr. Theresa J Morris Time Travel Stories
Peer Review Journal
John Titor, John Titor II
Dana Lee Stern Sr.
Theresa J Morris
Time Travel Stories

John Titor 1
Titor’s posts 1
Criticism and discussion 3
Investigations 4
In popular culture 4
Time travel 5
Bibliography 25

John Titor is a program just like a Jim Turner or Gem Turner meaning to raise awareness of the fact that we are all time travelers. We are here a short time. John Titor is to remind us we can change things.

We can turn the global future into a different outcome. Sharing awareness of what we want to happen is important. Who are the influencers? John Titor and Jim Turner are two of the same programs in time which get relayed in time to share that time is in the moment whether we look forward or backwards we can change what is happening if we are only aware of being human and able to accept our thoughts as our own. Make your own life story worth living and sharing in history.
John Titor

John Titor is the name used on several bulletin boards during 2000 and 2001 by a poster claiming to be a military time traveler from 2036. In these posts, Titor made numerous predictions about future events, some vague and some quite specific, starting with events in 2004. He described a drastically changed future in which the United States had broken up into five smaller regions, the environment and infrastructure had been devastated by a nuclear attack, and most other world powers had been destroyed. Before the timeframe of his predicted events came and went, Titor’s story invoked curiosity and received attention around the world. In the decade following his appearances on the internet, fiction and music were written about the character, and his origins were investigated by journalists and others. (John Titor, n.d.)

Titor’s posts

The first posts using John Titor’s military symbol appeared on the Time Travel Institute forums on November 2, 2000, under the name TimeTravel_0. At that time the name “John Titor” was not being used. The posts discussed time travel in general, the first one being the “six parts” description of what a time machine would need to have to work (see below) and responses to questions about how such a machine would work. Early messages tended to be short. The name “John Titor” was not introduced until January 2001, when TimeTravel_0 began posting at the Art Bell BBS Forums (which required a name or pseudonym for every account). The Titor posts ended in late March 2001. Around 2003, various websites reproduced Titor’s posts, re-arranging them into narratives. Not all refer to the original dates posted. Outline In his online postings, Titor claimed to be an American soldier from 2036, based in Tampa in Hillsborough County, Florida, assigned to a governmental time-travel project. Purportedly, Titor had been sent back to 1975 to retrieve an IBM 5100 computer which he said was needed to debug various legacy computer programs in 2036; a possible reference to the UNIX year 2038 problem. The IBM 5100 runs the APL and BASIC programming languages. Titor had been selected for this mission specifically, given that his paternal grandfather was directly involved with the assembly and programming of the 5100. Titor claimed to be on a stopover in the year 2000 for “personal reasons,” to collect pictures lost in the (future) civil war and to visit his family, of whom he spoke often.

Time machine Titor described his time machine on several occasions. In an early post, he described it as a “stationary mass, temporal displacement unit powered by two top-spin, dual positive singularities”, producing a “standard off-set Tipler sinusoid”. The earliest post was more explicit, saying it contained the following: •Two magnetic housing units for the dual micro singularities •An electron injection manifold to alter mass and gravity of the micro singularities •A cooling and X-ray venting system •Gravity sensors, or a variable gravity lock •Four main cesium clocks •Three main computer units According to the posts, the device was installed in the rear of a 1967 Chevrolet Corvette convertible and later moved to a 1987 truck having four-wheel drive. Titor shared several scans of the manual of a “C204 Time Displacement Unit” with diagrams and schematics, and posted some photographs of the device installed in the car. Predictions Although invoking the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, whereby events from his timeline may differ from our own, Titor also expressed assurance that the differences were minimal. As such, his descriptions have been interpreted as predictions and compared with historical events since 2001. The most immediate of Titor’s predictions was of an upcoming civil war in the United States having to do with “order and rights”. He described it as beginning in 2004, with civil unrest surrounding the presidential election of that year. This civil conflict that he characterized as “having a Waco type event every month that steadily gets worse” would be “pretty much at everyone’s doorstep” and erupt by 2008. As a result of the war, the United States would split into five regions based on various factors and differing military objectives.

Criticism and discussion

As Titor brought significant attention, there also emerged analysis and discussion concerning the veracity of his claims about his origins and mission, and the future events he talked about. No John Titor or Titor family is known to exist, meaning that who posted as Titor used a pseudonym. The story has been called inconsistent as contradictions between statements at different times have been observed. Holding the many-worlds interpretation as correct, Titor claimed that his mission as a time traveler was to shape a timeline in which many chaotic events of his time, including World War III and the civil war in the US, never happened. In some supposed Titor’s appearances in the internet and other media segments prior to his main posts (notably in faxes to the radio talk show Coast to Coast AM in 1998), he stated that he was not able to change the future despite his efforts, suggesting one of the possible contradictions. Nevertheless, none of the specific events he predicted to a near future, chaotic or not, have come to happen (see below). Some issues with the technology have also been considered. In one of Titor’s pictures of a supposed time machine, a laser beam is seen allegedly being bent by gravitational distortion, but the view of nearby objects is not distorted as would be expected. Also, Titor knew about technical features of the IBM 5100 which were not available to the public at the time, albeit widely commented in the industry, suggesting he had some advanced understanding of the machine or computers in general. Predictive failures One of Titor’s earliest assertions was that CERN would discover the basis for time travel sometime around 2001, with the creation of miniature black holes about half a year after his departure. This did not occur. An article published around the time he had predicted about miniature black holes created by CERN (a recurring theme, also ascribed to Fermilab and Brookhaven at various times) was taken by some to be evidence of this claim, but these events did not occur either. Civil war did not break out after the 2004 presidential election, nor did conflicts or military involvement in 2012. Titor unambiguously claimed that the last Olympics would occur in 2004. While it is unclear if he meant the summer or winter Olympics, both have occurred since this time. However, because Titor asserted that the many-worlds interpretation was proved correct by his time, his predictions could refer to another timeline and not ours, making them unfalsifiable. Story and consistency Potential contradictions have been observed in different Titor’s posts. In some of the posts, he claims that he was homeschooled, while in others he states that his basic education was conducted in the University of Florida. Similarly, he stated that he hid himself during the civil war in the US, while also stating in other instances that he fought in the war. In some posts, he claims that money is widely used and people still have credit cards, despite his statement that centralized banking no longer exists (this is either an inconsistency or implies the rise of private currencies). Titor’s story could also have been inspired by science fiction works. The use of an automobile as a time machine, for example, had been a key plot device in the popular 1985 movie Back to the Future and its sequels (as the DeLorean sports car), among others. Technology Titor provided an image of a detail of a supposed time machine, with a laser pointer beam “being bent by the gravitational field produced outside the vehicle by the distortion unit”. The beam being “bent” reveals an inconsistency of objects near the beam not appearing to be bent as well: the framing of the window visible in the background, for instance, should appear distorted in proximity to a large gravity gradient, but it does not. Some have speculated the “beam” is an optical fiber. Titor claimed that he was sent back to obtain an IBM 5100 because it could translate several types of computer code.


An Italian television program, Voyager – Ai confini della conoscenza, aired the results of an investigation of John Titor on May 19, 2008. Private investigator Mike Lynch found no registry evidence, past or present, of any individual named John Titor. He did, however, identify the John Titor Foundation, a for-profit company formed on September 16, 2003, with no office or address other than a rented post box in Kissimmee, Florida. An IP address connected with Titor also geolocated to Kissimmee. In 2009, a report by John Hughston of the Hoax Hunter website named Larry Haber, a Florida entertainment lawyer, as the CEO of the foundation. Lynch concluded that Haber and his brother John Rick Haber, a computer scientist, were very likely the men behind John Titor, whom they actually introduced in 1998, accompanied by different predictions, including chaos due to the Y2K “bug”.
In popular culture

•In 2003, the John Titor Foundation published a book, John Titor: A Time Traveler’s Tale (ISBN 1-59196-436-9), discussing his claims; the book is now out of print. •In 2004, Time Traveler Zero Zero, a play based on the John Titor story, was staged in the United States. •In 2006, John Titor’s “C204 Time Travel Theory” was the subject of a patent application by Marlin B. Pohlman, with the same diagram outlined in Titor’s original story. •The 2009 visual novel Steins;Gate, which was adapted into an anime in 2011, is centered on John Titor and his theories. A civil war caused by SERN (the fictional version of CERN), due to their discovery of time travel, is covered as well. •In 2012, the recording “Mittimus Quartet Zero” was recorded by the Free Jazz band Mittimus. The song titles, artwork and concept are based on the story of John Titor. •Italian grimecore band Hungry Like Rakovitz recorded the song I’ll be back in five minutes with John Titor, released on the album The cross is not enough in 2013. The lyrics of the song are quotes attributed to John Titor, taken from his posts on Time Travel Institute forums. (John Titor, n.d.)
Time travel

Time travel is the concept of movement (such as by a human) between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space, typically using a hypothetical device k
known as a time machine, in the form of a vehicle or of a portal connecting distant points in time. Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and fiction, but traveling to an arbitrary point in time has a very limited support in theoretical physics, and usually only in conjunction with quantum mechanics or Einstein–Rosen bridges. In a more narrow sense, one-way time travel into the future via § time dilation is a well-understood phenomenon within the frameworks of special relativity and general relativity, but advancing a large amount of time is not feasible with current technology. The concept was touched upon in various earlier works of fiction, but was popularized by H. G. Wells’ 1895 novel The Time Machine, which moved the concept of time travel into the public imagination, and it remains a popular subject in science fiction. (Time travel, n.d.)

(John Titor: Hoax, n.d.)This is a picture taken in the fall of 2035 during my training. It shows my instructor beaming a handheld laser outside the vehicle duringoperation. The beam is being bent by the gravitational field produced outside the vehicle by the distortion unit. The beam is visible through smokethat is coming from his cigar. He claims the light from the laser is being bent as it passes through the gravitational field of the device. If this was the case, ALL thelight passing near the device would be bent. This would give a gravitational lensing effect that would be noticeable in the image. Also, the lightreflecting off the smoke particles would also be bent on its return trip to the observer, thus the laser beam would still appear straight to theobserver. Another big one is his claims of Civil Unrest and indeed a Civil War in the US in 2004/2005. (He actually contradicts himself a few times, saying 2005instead of 2004 and vice versa). The civil war in the United States will start in 2004. I would describe it as having a Waco type event every month that steadily gets worse.and again: This becomes apparent around 2004 as civil unrest develops near the next presidential election. Now, we haven’t seen any Waco type events so far. Nor any Civil Unrest leading up to this coming election. Another large thing with all of Titor’s comments and predictions. Is that he never once mentioned 9-11, the Bali Bombing, the Madrid Bombings, theInvasion of Afghanistan or Iraq. In fact nothing about the war on terror at all. He does however comment on the Palestinian/Israeli conflict (the Intifada started in September 2000, so that had already happened when he startedposting). He claims this conflict has a hand in bringing the US into civil war. As it stands, this conflict has settled down somewhat, and there arefar far greater international issues that affect the US. Now, why would Titor post a fake picture of his ‘Time Machine’ in action? Why would he be wrong about the start of a Civil war in the US? Why would he not mention the War on Terror or any of the attacks/invasions? Simply put, because his story is a hoax. A quite well researched and executed hoax. But a hoax nonetheless. My guess is he didn’t click about thelight-bending picture (or perhaps didn’t notice the error). He was guessing about the Civil war. At the time there was a big fuss about the 2000 USelections, (he hinted that Florida’s votes would be discounted at one stage). He timed the ‘civil war’ to start around the next US elections. Fairlysafe guess at the time because it was still 4 years down the track. He didn’t mention the War on Terror because he didn’t know, he, like the rest ofus, didn’t see it coming. What other errors and inconsistencies are out there in Titors posts? This is just from a cursory look. onlyinmydreams posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:24 PM link Well, I’ve said some of the same things elsewhere (just as these ‘debunking’ claims have been made elsewhere), but here they go: It is just the beginning of the summer of 2004. He specifically stated that the civil unrest began around/because of the election. He also statedthat there was no general date on which the war ‘began’. rather, people felt that it began around 2004 in retrospect. Also, when did WW2 start? If i asked a British member of ATS they’d say 1939… an American member would say 1941. A Chinese member would say 1933. When he gives the date of2004 he is not giving an exact date like December 7, 1941… because the war was amorphous for a few years. It was only around 2008 that most peopleacknowledged that a civil war was occuring. Also… How do we know that people’s homes AREN’T being raided as we speak. A lot of what he talked about sounds very similar to the effects of thePatriot act… for all we know some of the searches that have already occured are what JT is thinking about. As for the laser, both KTPKR and myself have commented about that in another thread. To summarize what I said elsewhere, a person in 1904 looking atphotos of Gemini astronauts spacewalking would deem such photos ‘hoaxes’ because they violated the ‘laws’ of physics. zero_snaz posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:24 PM link Just to play devils advocate for a minute. . . Maybe 9-11 didn’t happen in his timeline. Because he did mention small differances in things, and didsay that this wasn’t the exact same timeline, didn’t he? Maybe 9-11 didn’t happen for him. . .as the Civil War isn’t happening for us. KrazyIvan posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:35 PM link john titor is a quack. hes read way to much science fiction and thinks that everyone is dumber than he is. that why he is saying all this stuff causehe thinks that all of use are stupid schlubs! and isnt that fiber optic wires in that picture? onlyinmydreams posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:37 PM link He said that the middle east would soon be “a no legger and no armer” or something like that… which implies active US involvement in mid-eastpolitics. Again, a real person from the future wouldn’t categorize information the way we do. For him, everything that’s going on in the mideast is just aseries of minor skirmishes that form a prelude to a much larger and more dramatic war. It’s unreasonable to expect someone from 32 years in thefuture to have the same focus that we do. If you or I went back to as little ago as 1990, we might fail to mention the first WTC bombing, the Khobartowers bombing, or the war in Rwanda. Someone going back to the 1930s might not mention the sinking of the Reuben James. All in all, 9-11 is the equivalent of the Reuben James sinking for JT (within the context of his story). He’s a veteran from a war that resulted intens of millions of deaths. For that reason, he’d be interested in the things that led up to that war — domestic polarization in the us — and notjust things we’re worried about. In the end, we have to judge JT based on his prediction. So far, I see a heavily polarized country, the spread of mad cow disease, and things likethe patriot act. We’ll know, if fighting starts after november, if he was telling the truth. JediMaster posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:38 PM link It is an intresting read, but I doubt he is a time travellar. He does not give enough specifics, like the president at the time of the civil war orwho wins the election, people he does not name people. We have roughly 5 months before this “civil war” and there is little evidence to show unrest. Only way I can see this, if Bush wins and Kerry getsreally really pissed off. But there would need to be alot of social unrest right now, a civil war cannot just happen spur of the moment. onlyinmydreams posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:41 PM link Originally posted by JediMaster It is an intresting read, but I doubt he is a time travellar. He does not give enough specifics, like the president at the time of the civil war orwho wins the election, people he does not name people. We have roughly 5 months before this “civil war” and there is little evidence to show unrest. Only way I can see this, if Bush wins and Kerry getsreally really pissed off. But there would need to be alot of social unrest right now, a civil war cannot just happen spur of the moment. Kerry wins and militias begin to form again. the fed pursues them. By 2008 Kerry is overwhelmed and replaced by Hillary Clinton… the femalepresident JT may be talking about. Also, keep in mind that John edwards might be Kerry’s running mate. Edwards proposed creating a domestic intelliegnce force during the primaries. Kano posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:42 PM link Originally posted by onlyinmydreams He specifically stated that the civil unrest began around/because of the election. He stated there would be Waco type events monthly through 2004. Not home-raiding. Waco type events. As for the laser, both KTPKR and myself have commented about that in another thread. To summarize what I said elsewhere, a person in 1904looking at photos of Gemini astronauts spacewalking would deem such photos ‘hoaxes’ because they violated the ‘laws’ of physics. They didn’t violate the ‘laws’ of physics in 1904. The comparison is weak at best. He is trying to use the ‘bending’ of his light as evidence of the strong gravitational field surrounding the device. If the light from the laserpointer bends, ALL the light should bend. It really is that simple. JediMaster posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:45 PM link His laser also has a grey area in the center of it. Its not becuase of his cigar smoke, since if you follow the line of red laser with your fingeryou’ll find that its grey. Most likely fiber optics. Same with the tip where it bends. A laser would need refective material to do that, from what I have read its impossible for it to bend so slightly. Therefore the weight of fiberoptics can make that. StrangeLands posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:45 PM link I’m with you on this one, Kano. I wasn’t aware of the Titor story prior to joining ATS, but I’ve read the source material thoroughly, and thereare two possible options. He’s lying, or he’s insane. A Titor Debunking Exercise should be part of the ATS newb-training program. Candidates are required to discuss the internal inconsistencies (akaThe Lies), the flawed physics, the inherent philosphical and metaphysical contradictions relating to the practical application of time travel,the dubious depiction of the political and economic paradigm of the his world, the suspiciously incomplete information ragarding our “near-future”,and, of course, the shocking lack of any evidence whatsoever. It’s a great story – and, as a sci-fi writer, I feel qualified to comment on that bit – but it’s complete bunk. JediMaster posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:48 PM link The Infitada is too small to be the cause of civil unrest, maybe the war in Iraq but not a matter between the Jews and Palestinians. He missed 9/11,the war on terror, and I the beheadings of the hostages, something that would’ve been and should’ve been relayed to him to us. Maybe ATS needs a John Titor Exposing the Hoax, research project. onlyinmydreams posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:48 PM link Originally posted by Kano Originally posted by onlyinmydreams He specifically stated that the civil unrest began around/because of the election. He stated there would be Waco type events monthly through 2004. Not home-raiding. Waco type events. As for the laser, both KTPKR and myself have commented about that in another thread. To summarize what I said elsewhere, a person in 1904looking at photos of Gemini astronauts spacewalking would deem such photos ‘hoaxes’ because they violated the ‘laws’ of physics. They didn’t violate the ‘laws’ of physics in 1904. The comparison is weak at best. He is trying to use the ‘bending’ of his light as evidence of the strong gravitational field surrounding the device. If the light from the laserpointer bends, ALL the light should bend. It really is that simple. Actually, Kano, it was accepted by scientific circles in 1904 that rocket propulsion in space was impossible because the rocket’s gases had nothingto push against. This logic was one of the reasons why Goddard had to (later on) receive funding from people like Henry Ford… he was considered a’quack’ and many scientific circles shunned him Kano posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:48 PM link Originally posted by onlyinmydreams Again, a real person from the future wouldn’t categorize information the way we do. Therein lies the problem, you seem to be obsessed with treating him like a Nostradamus. Instead of a person from the future who has returned. If it was a person from the future they would know the specifics and be able to give them. Did Titor even ever mention which party won the 2004elections? I think not. Did Titor give any specifics whatsoever that could be tested? Not really no. But really, when talking about a ‘coming US civil war’. Why would he cite the Palestinian/Israeli conflict as one of the causes for the Civil war,but fail to mention anything about the WTC, or the Invasion of afghanistan/Iraq (Iraq especially) which would have a far greater effect on internal USpolitics. Again I point out the lack of any Waco type incidents or Civil unrest in 2004. He isn’t Nostradamus, you can’t take his words and twist and turn them to make prophecies, as much as you would like to. ktprktpr posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:49 PM link I ran into this before, trying to explain supposedly inconsistencies. It pissed me off a lot then and it does now. So instead of going after everypost like rabid dog. I leave you all with this: John Titor wrote: 07 November 2000 21:23 (about the future) 34 pamela: 6.what started the war? and who fought in it? who won?what countries were destroyed and what survived? timetravel_0: Wow…that’s a big question. There is a civil war in the United States that starts in 2005. That conflict flares up and down for 10years. [… rest omitted …]… 11 November 2000 18:56 (safety, suggestions, assorted philosophy) 70 (Let me guess, you are here NOW to look at the unusual hung election we have going on. Or maybe this is the trigger event in the comming world wideeconmic meltdown? Some other piviot point in history? Fess up. Why now?) I would use the word “elections” a bit cautiously. Perhaps its easier now to see a civil war in your future? (same page) I have adopted a wait and see attitude. Every contention that has been brought up, even the laser light, has either been to weak or incorrect.Irrespective what anyone thinks, if there is a “civil war” in 2005, hoax or not, John Titor is accurate enough to pay attention to. onlyinmydreams posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:51 PM link Originally posted by JediMaster The Infitada is too small to be the cause of civil unrest, maybe the war in Iraq but not a matter between the Jews and Palestinians. He missed 9/11,the war on terror, and I the beheadings of the hostages, something that would’ve been and should’ve been relayed to him to us. Maybe ATS needs a John Titor Exposing the Hoax, research project. Can you, off hand, name the major battles of Japan’s initial manchurian campaign? JediMaster posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:57 PM link Nope, but I get where your going. But the war on terror is a major world wide known thing, something that will not be forgetten in under 30 years, maybe 300 but in 2035 this would bestill known. marg6043 posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:58 PM link I remember this guy or somebody like him on an interview way back about 3 years. As I was getting ready to go to work, I used to listen to Mad Cow (hewas banned after that in our local network) and I used to like the crazy interviews, and this guy pops up and say that he was a time traveler from thefuture and in the interview occurs Man Cow make fun of him because the guy sounded tired so Man Cow made references of having sex or something likeit, and the guy when on talking about the future and the world war and about one government and billions of people that die, and to tell the worldthat we were in great danger, and truly it sounded very familiar to this guy. Any comments on this.? Kano posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 02:59 PM link Originally posted by ktprktpr Every contention that has been brought up, even the laser light, has either been to weak or incorrect. Irrespective what anyone thinks Deny that ignorance young man. He posts the light-bending picture as evidence of the gravitational field around the device. Gravitational fields do not specifically target one beamof light and bend that alone. We know this from observing (and even making use of) gravity lensing in astronomy. Now, even if we did want to get all fancy, and pretend that somehow he made a special gravitational field that ONLY effected that frequency of light.How are we seeing the beam of light? We are seeing the light reflected off the smoke particles from the cigar (according to his story). THAT light isthe same frequency as the light from the laser. It would be bent by the ‘special’ gravitational field. As such the beam would still appearstraight. Quite simply, the bent beam is BS. We are already aware of the light-bending properties of Gravity, that is why Titor used this as an example of hisdevice. Failing to realise the flaw in his image. StrangeLands posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 03:00 PM link Originally posted by onlyinmydreams Actually, Kano, it was accepted by scientific circles in 1904 that rocket propulsion in space was impossible because the rocket’s gases had nothingto push against. That doesn’t mean that the fundamental laws of physics were different in 1904, onlyinmydreams, it just means that contemporary understanding of thoselaws was flawed. Originally posted by JediMaster Maybe ATS needs a John Titor Exposing the Hoax, research project. Despite being enormously saddened that we would need such a redundant project, count me in. It’s time this nonsense was buried with a stakein it’s heart. machinegunjordan posted on Jun, 26 2004 @ 03:02 PM link i just finished reading the titor articles on abovetopsecret. That was a damn good job of debunking their Kano. See this is what i thought when iviewed that picture. “The qaulity of that picture is low res crap”. You would think in 2035 or whatever date he claimed they would be using camerascapable of making better qaulity pictures. i mean you can hardly tell he has a cigar. you can hardly tell that is a laser pin.BTW was this Titor guy amember of ats? [edit on 6/26/2004 by machinegunjordan]
Is this just a game? Are we part of a computer program? This is the question we are asking ourselves now prior to the 2045-2080 time frame. Why are we questioning our own existence and if we have a soul? Mixed Emotions of Being a Humanoid versus ET Hybrid? Is being human all there is? Do we die only to find out we are not immortals? Some of us have been on the other side of this timeline. We have seen time stand still. For whatever reason we are seeking out each other.

We are looking for others with similar interests.

We are already dealing with who we are and why we are here. The conclusions we are coming up with is basically to share in the experience. This is what most people are coming up with whom I speak with anyway.

There are times when humans of good conscience are times when humans must stand up for what is right in their own minds.

Emotional maturity and awareness. Neural pathways will be a part of our fun in emotional education and entertainment. We are no discussing human form of love in our emotions and the flirting, laughter, feeling with the caring and empathy. Complete neural system growth and presence
through our memories.

We can incorporate our memories into the future into data we can share and control as memories of the history of our future and our past.

Our species can perceive perception beyond variable timelines. This must do with gravity. Similarly, on Mars we share 38% less gravity than here on planet earth. There here and now is different on various timelines.

The timeline I am now on was not the original and this was a defeat. We may have no choice but to look at our rivalry that was before all wars including the World War One and one Word War Two and World War Three does not happen but is one of peace here and of our era.

If we get back to earth, we will share the knowledge based on that gravity of the weaker and stronger force has 113 levels and dimensions. We now discuss 13 levels and the elements of all things is more than the total sum of its parts as part of an exchange program from recent visits from one universe to another.

The dimensions help us experience our world and bond as family and friends and in culture. This is the power of the ET Internet.

In my tie line my point of view is as a perception of women in charge and God Mother allows us to see the future and the dreams to be chased.

The natural food of the world that comes from the planet I one level of existence. We who are of the ET have the food of that which has the nutrients and appears to be meat and there is grown on various ships the animals which are like those on the planet we call earth but some differences too subtle to notice in our world of peace.

The Supreme High Council does not allow us to have alternate biographies of the crew but our perception and our death is not an empty death. A death without purpose.

I’m not supposed to be here now. My husband in this realm has passed and I was supposed to be dead many times. This revel to a level of my existence is for me to be possible on this time line so as not to fail. My life will continue for a long while. I am requesting a transfer.

The logic of our minds is balanced on both sides with not only what we can prove in this world but what we can perceive. The fact that we’d not honor our perceptions and intuition is in this world going to change over time.

This is my part as I am asked to formulate the Ascension Center and that of the Space Ports.

This will seem rather senseless for someone who is going to die. But, we are all dying. The mission is to assure that we all understand that our lives will pass here but our souls are immortal as is our thoughts as our memories.

At this point gravity and the veil of flesh has been impairing our own judgment. I have seen hundr4eds die in this world. But, those who have died around me I have seen since I had a timeline cross mine in 1995. Again, they crossed in 2007. Then in 2015 my husband aid he had to go and that he would see me on the other side.

I cannot avoid the fact that I will die here as anyone else born to live and die here on this planet. But, I did receive the name of Ascension Center and Alien Contact and I am truly the one with the history of this.
Alien Contact with these two words together I can claim in industry in the United States of America. The Name is filed as a Domain Name a

Taking over the future will assist us the history and that our history will never forget us Thomas Ray Morris and Theresa J Morris who met in March 1995 for a purpose. April 8 1995 is an important date as well.

We will keep these dates in our star date history as we use the planet earth timeline.
Are shared.

April 8 1995 is the date wee falsely met here and in another future.

June 2, 2016 is the day I recognize that I must write and teach and heal the future with knowing I can write and what will seem science fiction. Much like the Starship Enterprise was seen was a science fiction vessel which was originally created by Gene Roddenberry we will discuss the gravity which will obtain our future in space.

My future is planned and I will share a timeline that marks the paused in time that will explain where certain anomalies happened called false anomalies and even in the state of being human and we were invited to meet someone who is not of this world.

My future will be sharing the future with those who function in normal parameters.

Spacecraft of our universe and in other universes are not false anomalies.

My mission can be classified as one of spirit to many since we know we are here a short tie in human form as a species.

We know that purely and surely, we are all another species an immortal soul and this is what we share with most for the love of our own lives and so we can get along while here to perform our duties and our missions. Many forget their soul purpose while here when they come into the flesh which is a dense veil. Many find remembering differently with cybernetics and a positronic brain.

Complex neural net pathways are coming and it is possible to transfer memories from one brain into another. We are not consulting and observing procreation from another’s human like child.

New androids are not determined by biology and technology and new life out of our own being in the charts of history.

The strength of information and education is beyond our own imaginations and many great thinkers realized and r4cognized that we are all more that our human critical mass consciousness lives with.

Following all our Supreme High Council’s regulations and policies as to do with timelines and traditional doctrine and theology and parenting and extraordinary thoughts in co-creating new life’s and lifetimes.

We are seeking to achieve a co-creator can achieve another sentient being and sentient android. Data on the U.S.S. Enterprise was one such android and with the creation of love and law will give us risks and we shall take the responsibility for both gender male and female. And we have neuter and neutral.

Defining the parameters of how people interrelate to composites of humans that have been programmed. A big decision as to what species and composition.

Replicated anatomy of more skin and eye color as a girl is what we choose for this time and sequence of events.

I am Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris and I have both lived and died in this timeline. I also have a place in time and space and will continue to share that which this world has been held back from time to time while we grew in this time and eager life form in what we call space and time as space-time.

As we travel from one point in space to the next on this planet we should all agree that we Aare to finally adapt our place in space in the galaxy and in the universe. Our galaxy will continue to connect to that of the Andromeda Galaxy and my lifetime was locked into be designed to share the future and perception for those who come to me for courage an acceptance to co-crate for the future information. There is no obligation and any free find of time is accepted.

We account for our short time on earth with an exchange of energy. We can only explain that we all understand that time is short and what we fill it with is a choice. We should share eben as extra biological entities who discover who they are as who we now regard an experiencer in the future worlds.

We are now place of existence as those on a home planet. Training in the social skills at early ages has set backs while reflexes develop. Visual comprehension and data banks and human responses is a part of the future of androids. Interesting to note I allows us to relearn that which we have forgotten.

We are sharing the future while transferring neural pathways to be duplicated in the future with transfers. We study in our quarters on the spacecraft. We have the access to various sharing experiences.

We have superior training and the news and schools for training will be future forthcoming for new androids.

We have children that are human and there will be future androids which are more than smart phones in the future. Difference sometimes scare people and sometimes humor is used to make fear. We must learn how the imagination and the feelings are used in relation to the human anatomy and how it is relocated in the future in other children in androids. Emotions are that which is in passing into sentience. The most difficult stage of development for all computers of all places in space on planets with various life forms. Remembering our own child hoods and how we related to that which we feel and share our emotions will help those who come and grow from space.

We are here to learn to achieve sentience through attention and love. The fact that we have a matter in all things that is priority one is Level one is achieving Sentience for all beings including Androids and our Sentience in humans and computer development.

I have been told that some of my writing has not fully assimilated into the thought transferences of a foliated as human thoughts. Opening to new beginnings as we share being conformed into life we know as humanoid sentient intelligent being.

How we adapt as Alien ET Hybrids allows us to know that parts of our memories are still not fully assimilated. I shall do my part to integrate fully into this life form in this lifetime. Anyone can be a fully integrated human over time if given a certain amount of time in one life form. But this is preferred to be loved in one lifetime. Love is the most cherished emotion to learn to adapt and overcome in the lives we share in the many universes.

I stopped writing for a while while my soul mate was alive as Commander. I am now Commander for this team. Beloved for Hindi is LAL. LAL is what we shall call our SHIMYASE’s. Shimjase’s. This word was used like a teacher.

I shall develop our future Computers in this world and the environment for those who come here. We shall not relocate from this planet while in a favorable timeline. We have lifetimes of experiences and we learn from the mistakes we make in our education and communication. Some others want to be around those who question others parenting children that come to earth. There are those who are correlating android.

Many seem to communicate telepathically. When both in love are thinking about the same things. Holding hands are a form of affection. We must learn to know emotions and love. We are not learning to emulate but to feel. Love is the struggle we must strive to be are than we are.

We must strive from the effort to yield its own reward. The difference between knowledge and experience. I will share touching and holding hands as one such affection we should all learn as touch. Healing touch can be very rewarding to our emotional empathetic systems.

Our nervous system is a part of our most inherent human form. The wiring we shall share in our future children as sentient android will also have this nervous system in place as sharing memory codes as to where we are touched.

Touching and loving and displaying human emotions is a big part of learning to fit into the humanoid species. Breathing may appear somewhat labored when in love and we shall learn to be perfect in the emotions and feelings when we are in love. Love is the greatest of all basic hand held systems and measuring tools for succeeding at life as a humanoid.

We achieve love to say that we are accomplished as individuals. Love others and do unto others as we would want them to return these feelings and stimulating emotions to our pressure points as skills.

The research is made and while here on earth this planet is for learning how we accept androids as living sentient beings. Artificial intelligence is demanding controlled procedures now.

Quantum Levels and positronic matrix activity can be improved. Diagnostic and evaluative procedures and models of who we use as a basis for comparison is used in science of artificial intelligence in the singularity.

We suggest we monitor all broad knowledge of all artificial intelligence and all that there is to learn about the future here on this timeline. More guidance is probable.

Stating facts and selective judgment in verbalization for all thoughts and communication sharing.

I am embarking on a quest that requires visualization, synchronization, and imagination.

We are particles and waves and are learning to use words to communicate. If you are interested in working with a Team as a TASK Force, then please join me at TJ Morris ACIR.

Mission AT TJ Morris American Communications Internet Radio

(Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, n.d.) (RHIC – Black Holes?, n.d.)

Before RHIC began operations in 2000, some were concerned that it would produce black holes that would threaten the earth. Here’s why those concerns were unfounded. Committee Review of Speculative “Disaster (RHIC – Black Holes?, n.d.)
In July 1999, Brookhaven Lab Director John Marburger convened a committee of distinguished physicists to write a comprehensive report on the arguments that address the safety of speculative disaster scenarios at RHIC. The scenarios are: Creation of a black hole that would “eat” ordinary matter. Initiation of a transition to (RHIC – Black Holes?, n.d.)Time travel is the concept of movement (such as by a human) between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine, in the form of a vehicle or of a p … – Text under CC-BY-SA license Abstract The feeling that one was ‘born in the wrong time’ we call malchronia. This is distinct from mere nostalgia, in that it may generate the longing to transcend the temporal present in favor of a time of which one has had no experience, or even a timeless state of being. Implicit in malchronetic longing is the rejection of one’s experience of one’s own time, making it a revolutionary and utopian inclination. In this article we examine two dominant strategies—primitive weapons in the war on time, really—that have been developed in the hopes of delivering individuals to a future beyond the reach of their natural life spans: cryonics and bionics. Acknowledgements Elements of this article were presented at two conferences in January 2005; one hosted by the British Comparative Literature Association at Goldsmiths College in London, and the other by the eSharp electronic journal for the social sciences, humanities and arts at the University of Glasgow (in conjunction with the Arts and Humanities Research Board). Both conferences focused broadly on the theme of ‘boundaries’, and responses elicited from these have greatly informed the development of the ideas presented within this article. We would like to thank Prof. Dudley Knowles and Dr. Tony Milligan for their comments on earlier drafts. I: Introduction ‘Time travel’, properly construed, is the misapplication of a spatial metaphor to a non-spatial phenomenon. ‘Travel’ is a spatial term, but the independent traversal of the temporal dimension alone does not in any way imply literal movement through space. Thus, ‘time travel’ is a poor way of describing a process that we imagine can occur—the temporary and localized dissociation of time from space—though in truth it may be beyond human capacity to initiate it or even comprehend its full implications. Two main streams of literature concern themselves with the possibility of time travel: theoretical physics and science fiction. The latter of these, at least, typically treats time travel in a Ptolemaic fashion, which is to say that the earth is implicitly taken to be the unmoving center of the universe. Flatly ignoring the movement of the earth through space allows authors of science fiction to avoid having to account for the various logistical problems this fact would pose for their time-traveling characters. But to take the idea of time travel seriously—as distinct from spatial travel—one must account for the idea that during time travel one presumably stays in a single spatial location in the universe as one navigates the temporal dimension independent of spatiality. Leaving out the theoretical problems posed to one’s animal survival upon leaving the spatial dimension, under such conditions it is very probable that upon one’s reentry to spatiality, at a (presumably pre-selected) earlier or later time, expressed as a temporal coordinate, that one could end up in the vacuum of space or somewhere within the crust of the planet, or on a meteor, or so forth, unless one was extremely diligent in making the appropriate calculations to avoid such contingencies (and even then there could be no guarantee of safety). So in science fiction it is often a conveniently neglected fact that we are spinning through the universe (in which nothing keeps its exact place—not planets, suns, solar systems, galaxies, nor even the universe itself), and not firmly pinned to an unmoving surface, terra firma. Indeed, it is difficult for us to conceive of inhabiting time independently of space, because space and time are, in all observable cases, intimately connected. So through popular usage of the term, and perhaps also a dearth of imagination, we have become burdened with the unapt spatial metaphor of ‘time travel’, and all of its concomitant Ptolemaic assumptions. But that concept of time travel—of moving through time independently of space—is itself exceedingly modern. What we are interested in here is not the science or metaphysics of such modern time travel, but rather the desires that inspire research regarding, and drive people to attempt, time-travel, as well as primitive technological and philosophical expressions of this desire, a desire as old as humankind itself. We are interested in dissatisfaction with the present, in utopian longings for inaccessible pasts and futures. We are interested in man’s war on time (where the term ‘man’ stands for all humankind), and how this can be further understood as the extension of man’s war on himself, his quest to flatten all limitations that nature has imposed upon him. For the purposes of our discussion we shall be content to leave the popular misconceptions about ‘time-travel’ outlined above as we found them. They will trouble us no further for the moment, as the frameworks of desire, and primitive methods of time-travel generated by the same, are simple enough to be analyzed equally well within either a Ptolemaic or a non-Ptolemaic worldview. II: Malchronia and Cryonics The first nascent technology of time travel we will examine is cryonics, the practice of preparing and storing organisms, in whole or in part, at subzero temperatures, for the purposes of re-animation at a later time. Currently, this procedure is mostly favored by the wealthy terminally ill who have themselves cryogenically preserved as soon after their deaths as possible, in the hopes that they can be revived at some future time, when a cure for their ailment might be available. The reasoning behind this practice is typically justified by making reference to life as the source of ultimate good (regardless of the expected quality of life). Cryonic freezing, by offering even a small chance at future life, is thus touted as a preferable alternative to certain death. In the most ideal application of this procedure, a frozen body would stay in more or less one geographic location while time marched onwards (note once more the inevitable use of a spatial metaphor), and while various other spatial entities moved around her, cumulatively changing the appearance of her surroundings. After a given length of time, she would be revived and allowed to explore her unfamiliar surroundings with, no doubt, a sense of wonder. This prospect of preserving oneself, whilst one’s physical and social world becomes largely unrecognizable (hopefully for the better), forms part of the underlying utopian dream that pushes forward technological development in cryonics. One might freeze oneself, if not out of sheer desperation or fear of death, then presumably in the hope that one will be greeted by a better world when one is eventually thawed out. It would seem, however, that to sacrifice the inherent advantages of familiarity with one’s native time and place (for example: knowing where to acquire food, with what currency, using which gestures, and so forth), one must find the present, for one reason or another, wholly intolerable. Whether this is due to concrete reasons, such as concerns for one’s health, or ideological reasons, such as dissatisfaction with the system of governance one is subject to, the compulsion to flight is very similar in effect. This sense of existing in an unbearable present time we call being in a state of ‘malchronia’, or ‘bad-time-condition’, as literally translated from its Greek root and Greek and Latin affixes. A person in a state of malchronia may experience intense psychic distress resulting therefrom, which can be expressed in a condition we have dubbed ‘malchronesis’. One so suffering from malchronesis may respond to the discomforts it induces by becoming what we will refer to further along in the paper as a ‘malchronetic agent’—one who engages in, or agitates for, a war on the limitations imposed by time. The movement from a realization of malchronia to the development of malchronesis—the phenomenological equivalent of an allergenic reaction to time itself—is not necessarily driven by egoistic concerns; one can be sick of one’s own time because of widespread injustice, societal entropy, and environmental conditions which impact others more than oneself, as well as because of profound personal disaffection, maladjustment, or ostracism. In the background, behind all of these particular and general dissatisfactions with the present is, no doubt, a concern with cheating time…with gaining immortality. Keeping this generally appealing prospect in mind, the fiction and theory built upon the logical possibility of time travel is, considering its low probability of realization, still understandably quite comprehensive. Consider the well-known tale of Rip Van Winkle. As the story goes, Rip takes a nap after drinking with some gnomes in the Catskill Mountains of New York state and wakes up twenty years into the future, only to find that he has been all but forgotten, his wife now deceased and his daughter grown. Further, Rip has no place in the present he wakes up in because of the unexplainable gap in his past, which prevents others from finding his words to be credible. Similarly, in the Japanese fairy tale “Urashima Taro”, one reads of the eponymous hero’s trip to the wondrous undersea Dragon Palace on the back of an enchanted turtle. Taro stays there with the princess Otohime for three days of leisure and entertainment. When he returns home, however, three hundred years have passed in his village. And so the tragedy of time traveling is compounded in Taro’s case…the site of his house is in ruins and all of his family is long dead. When he realizes what has happened to him, in some versions of the fairy tale he ages terribly in seconds, and in others he disintegrates completely. In the stories of both Rip and Taro, the moral is clearly a cautionary one: punishments await those who transgress temporal boundaries. III: Prometheus, Noah, and H. G. Wells But neither Rip Van Winkle nor Urashima Taro chose to time travel; it simply happened to them in the natural course of conducting their ordinary mortal affairs. It is a hunting trip gone awry that brings Rip into contact with the mischievous gnomes, and it is during a fishing excursion that Taro is approached by the enchanted turtle. Each man is a victim, it would seem, of bad moral luck, as he goes about his day-to-day business. This is an important observation to make here, as we are particularly interested in examining a very different strain of time traveler. We wish to concentrate on figures who willfully pursue the option of temporal flight over remaining in a present which they find to be painful and ultimately dissatisfying—figures that, in type, resemble H. G. Wells’ Time Traveler from his novel The Time Machine. Such malchronetic agents are in the tradition of Prometheus (the Titan in Greek mythology who stole fire from the gods for the benefit of humankind). They defy powerful forces (the so-called natural order and time’s place in it) and risk terrible punishments (typically, their own annihilation through stranding or disappearance in time). These fictional figures are confronted with an ugly present, yet nevertheless dare to imagine a different time, a better time even; in this way, would-be time travelers constitute a subversive, utopian archetype. Like the early scientists in any emergent field of study, they grope in the darkness for answers to barely articulated questions. Or, conversely, they may be led, like the biblical Noah, by mysterious visions of apocalypse and the means by which to escape the foretold annihilation. But regardless of whether the source of dissatisfaction with the present is internally or externally suggested, once it has been accepted there can be no step backwards for malchronetic agents, and formulating a method to cheat time becomes their central occupation from that point onward; whether that is expressed in ark-building or solitary cogitation will be an agent-specific affair. One might fairly ask why we consider together figures such as Noah and Prometheus, neither of whom are conventionally interpreted as time-travelers, in the same breath as true time-travelers. Partially this is due to the suggestions of both H. G. Wells and his critics. Wells’ All Aboard for Ararat features a latter-day descendant of Noah in a reprise of the familiar role of humanity’s savior, while Patrick Parrinder makes specific reference to Prometheus as a figure analogous to Wells’ Time Traveler. But more importantly, we make these associations because of the distinct methodologies both Noah and Prometheus employ in their quests to achieve their ends, which have, as a distinct feature, some time-cheating effect. For Noah, enduring the passage of time allows for a transition to a better state of affairs. For Prometheus, stealing fire for man brings the future closer for all of humankind. In other words, through the employment of technology, the cultural practices of humanity are irrevocably altered: the future becomes now, and thus the old order, the hated former ‘now’, is forever vanquished. IV: Performance Art and the Culture of Bionics We link the Promethean strategy for combating malchronesis to bionics, the electro-mechanical modification of the human body for aesthetic, medical, functional, or spiritual purposes. Robotic limbs, artificial organs, and cybernetic implants in one’s nervous system all count as instances of bionic enhancement. Cyborgs, the entities that are the result of such marriages between flesh and machine, seek not only to prolong their own lifespan (and, in some cases, perhaps to alter the quality of their experiential lives), but also (one presumes) to inhabit a world wherein the value of bionic modification is generally recognized. Thus, an implicit goal of the bionics movement is not only the bio-modification of individuals, but the generation of a cyborg-friendly culture that welcomes (or even adulates) those so modified, as well. The future, in such a schema, is not something that is sought after through escape to another time, but something that is brought closer to the present through choices and actions performed in the here and now. Prometheanism, then, can be described as a variety of inverted fatalism, wherein the present pulls the future inexorably closer, and finally—by consuming it—becomes it. We see the efforts made by such real-world malchronetic agents as the contemporary artist Stelarc as representatives of Prometheanism. Stelarc examines the problematic of human augmentation through performances utilizing bionautical media. In his 1981 performance piece The Third Hand, he utilized a five-fingered robotic hand, constructed in collaboration with the Japanese auto concern Imasen Denki, which was manipulated via movements in his abdominal and leg muscles. In his most notable performances with this bionic appendage, Stelarc simply wrote “THE THIRD HAND” with both his right hand and robotic hand simultaneously, but the theory behind his work is much more comprehensive and ambitious than his demonstration alone might have suggested. Stelarc posits that “[t]he body must become immortal to adapt. Utopian dreams [have] become post-evolutionary imperatives.”[1] What is significant about Stelarc’s views toward bionautical exploration is that accompanying his proposed transcendence of death, and attainment of immortality, he posits that a future must be conceptualized in advance, one wherein eternal cyborgs could perpetually inhabit. Again we see how bionics is pursued now, in the present, but necessarily with an eye towards transforming both the modifiable self and the society that contains it into a vision of the future that will support both. V: Cryobiology and The Great Flood Returning to the malchronetic archetype of Noah, we see a different sort of strategy adopted in response to unbearable present conditions. Noah, as we discussed, hopes simply to endure disaster—to live to see a better tomorrow. The great biblical Flood, he has been promised by his God, will eventually subside—and then a new beginning for humanity will obtain. Humankind is to be delivered to safety by protective, otherworldly forces that elude his full comprehension. The chore of humankind, in this schema, is not to transform itself internally—to rebuild itself from the top down bionically or morally—but simply to suspend its normal activities until certain external conditions have improved. Noah’s strategy for combating malchronesis has its parallel in the motivation behind (and technology of) cryonics: one prepares oneself for ‘travel’ to a future euchronia (‘good time’), either through the building of an ark, or the readying of a cryo-chamber, to escape a present that one interprets as fundamentally unchangeable by human effort in the short term. Noahism, then, could be described as an impatient variety of fatalism: the future is seen as inevitable, and the present as unbearable, and so the future should be arrived at as soon as possible. This is to say that, during the course of a natural lifetime, a Noahist will not strive for improvements, but rather pray for interventions. After he has built the ark, Noah is largely a passive figure awaiting an outcome. Compare this to the figure of Prometheus, who takes the initiative, and plays an active role in generating an outcome. Noah outlasts, while Prometheus transforms. It should not be surprising then, that cryonics should find its initial inspiration in the passive natural phenomena of hibernation and diapause. Hibernation is familiar enough to people of colder climes; it is the process by which over-wintering animals are seen to enter a state of prolonged sleep during the onset of winter, in order to conserve energy as they await more favorable conditions for foraging and breeding to emerge. Diapause is a slightly more obscure and more dramatic process, wherein organic growth and development are themselves temporarily suspended as the bodies of animals—usually insects and amphibians in this case—decrease their metabolism and produce much more sugar than usual (which acts as a kind of natural antifreeze), or develop coverings such as hibernacula, cocoons, or egg shells as barriers to the cold. Diapause, in short, induces a more severe state of suspended animation than simple hibernation.[2] Animals in such a state appear to be deceased for all intents and purposes—such are the effects of diapause. As growth is arrested in an organism in a diapausal state, so too is decay, and therein lies the deeper kernel of pragmatic motivation behind developing the science of cryobiology, the umbrella discipline under which cryonics ostensibly falls. If decay can be indefinitely forestalled, then life should be able to be indefinitely extended. Significant investigations by R. A. Reaumur were conducted in cryobiology in 1736 using the bodies of whole insects as his subjects. Reaumur was known to have likened the animals’ recovery from freezing to resurrection.[3] Although to this day, insects remain the largest animals to survive freezing at extremely low temperatures, the information these investigations provided has subsequently been applied to other, larger animals which have been able to be reanimated from less severe freezing, such as frogs, fish, and mammal embryos, including those of humans.[4] Applications of cryobiology have also played a significant role in medical research and practice. Cryosurgery, the freezing of organic tissue to destroy infected or malignant tissues, or to deaden nerves as a pain prevention method before an operation, is routinely practiced in hospitals worldwide. And cryotherapy, or exposing part or all of the body to extreme cold to prevent pain, has long been employed in folk medicine and professional medical practices alike. Cheating pain and disease through freezing or chilling tissue—in other words, overcoming certain factors which make the present unbearable—constitutes the application of a primitive, elemental technology toward the end of transcending natural limitations. Pain thresholds and life expectancies are only two examples of boundaries that promise to be broken utilizing these means. VI: Utopianism, Transhumanism, and Nietzsche Although, on the whole, cryonics seems more passive than bionics, both of these strategies for overcoming malchronesis fall under the aegis of a transcendent urge, an ideological compulsion for one-upping what exists in favor of what could take its place. Thus we attach it not to the philosophy of late modernism, the era wherein these technologies have begun to come into their own, but rather the early modern tradition of utopianism, which began in the sixteenth century. In literary practice, utopians depict alternate societies that challenge individuals to change their ways—and shame societies to become more than what they are. We have in mind here the work of Sir Thomas More and his earliest imitators as exemplars of this trend toward critical, yet constructive and imaginative, expressions of sociopolitical dissatisfaction with the current order. A more recent manifestation of the utopian impulse can be found in the philosophy of transhumanism, which aims toward a self-directed course of evolution for humanity, and advocates utilizing available means toward this end. Transhumanists hope to transgress many boundaries that are currently held to define our species: that we are born from wombs; that we cannot have knowledge of other minds; that we occupy only one space at one time; that our consciousness is inseparable from our bodies; and that these bodies age and eventually perish. Cloning, telepathy, the ‘uploading’ of human minds into computers, and of course the enhancing and preserving aspects of bionics and cryonics technology, are considered to be potential enablers of self-directed evolution for the human species. The obstacle, for the transhumanist, is in discovering the means to realize them; and, also, in addressing the anxiety of a public who may (quite understandably) be concerned about possible abuses of these emergent technologies. Many transhumanists acknowledge the humanist movement of the Enlightenment as constituting the origin of their theoretical lineage, in that the human remains the center of the moral universe on their schema. Yet, ironically, transhumanism can also be construed as containing a strand of anti-humanism, since its goal is to denude humanity of many characteristics we now understand as constitutive of it. By aiming to eliminate certain salient features of the human condition, it also threatens to eliminate the conditions that make conventional morality possible. Therefore, we think it more appropriate to situate transhumanism as a theoretical descendent of Romanticism, and especially Nietzsche’s writings on moral freedom and self-transcendence. However, we must make here an important distinction between minimal transhumanism—that is to say, that branch of transhumanism that advocates species enhancement due to fear of death (thanatophobia), or the desire to prolong life—and maximal transhumanism. Maximal transhumanism, while advocating similar ends and means as its minimal counterpart, finds its initial source of inspiration in a more robust ideology of transcendence, which encapsulates both species and self. It is toward the philosophical origin of this latter variety of (maximal) transhumanism—a position that only a small percentage of professed transhumanists might feel comfortable aligning themselves with—that we now turn. Nietzsche captures the malchronetic sentiment behind self-transcendence in the following extended passage from Human, All Too Human: A drive and impulse rules and masters [the free spirit] like a command; a will and desire awakens to go off, anywhere, at any cost; a vehement dangerous curiosity for an undiscovered world flames and flickers in all its senses. ‘Better to die than to go on living here’—thus responds the imperious voice and temptation: and this ‘here’, this ‘at home’ is everything it hitherto loved! A sudden terror and suspicion of what it loved, a lightening-bolt of contempt for what it called ‘duty’, a rebellious, arbitrary, volcanically erupting desire for travel, strange places, estrangements, coldness, soberness, frost, a hatred of love, perhaps a desecrating blow and glance backwards to where it formerly loved and worshipped, perhaps a hot blush of shame at what it has just done and at the same time an exultation that it has done it, a drunken, inwardly exultant shudder which betrays that a victory has been won—a victory? over what? over whom? an enigmatic, question-packed, questionable victory, but the first victory nonetheless: such bad and painful things are part of the history of the great liberation. It is at the same time a sickness that can destroy the man who has it, this first outbreak of strength and will to self-determination, to evaluating on one’s own account, this will to free will: and how much sickness is expressed in the wild experiments and singularities through which the liberated prisoner now seeks to demonstrate his mastery over things! [5] This quotation is quintessential of many important elements of our discussion of malchronetic longing thus far. Nietzsche combines in this one passage both the ‘hot blush’ and ‘exultation’ characteristic of the bionic Prometheanist, and the craving for the ‘coldness’ and ‘frost’ of ‘strange places’ characteristic of the cryonic Noahist. Moreover, he echoes the theme of punishment pending the transgression of boundaries so central to the Western literary tradition that can be read both in the Bible (Adam’s fall from Edenic grace) and in Greek mythology (Icarus’ fall from the skies). In the same stroke, Nietzsche simultaneously presages the work of H. G. Wells (who himself is not oblivious to these repeated themes of transgression and punishment). Wells’ main characters, especially in his popular science fantasies (i.e. The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, and The Island of Doctor Moreau), taste the exhilaration of freedom from certain given limitations, the experience of which is followed closely by death or disillusionment. The ‘great liberation’ Nietzsche refers to is, unfortunately, tainted by the ‘sickness’ of less free times; and thus unfortunately some men will be destroyed by their ‘wild experiments’. Wells, who is said to owe the idea of the samurai class of his A Modern Utopia to Nietzsche’s concept of the übermensch, can be situated on both sides of the transhumanist line, as during different phases of his life, he was both a proponent and a detractor of transhumanism’s underlying premises.[6] Put differently, Wells has been at various points both an optimist and a pessimist regarding the potential of science to aid in the betterment of humankind, and this can be read between the lines in his various choices of whether to portray his protagonists as either enlightened seekers of truth or as ‘liberated prisoners’ demonstrating a terrifying and unstable newly-won ‘mastery over things’. At the beginning, and again at the end of his career, it is said that there is a distinct “theme of the liberated intellect as a destructive element.”[7] As V. S. Pritchett observes, “[t]here is the optimistic outward journey, [and] there is the chastened return.”[8] From the perspective of narrative, the quest outward and the return home require each other; mirror each other—as does the critical function of a utopia both need and ape its constructive function—and the relationship between these two elements is, not accidentally, complementary. There is a similar resonance, as well, between the two primitive technologies of time travel under our consideration. Cryonics’ adherents hope that bionics will progress to such a point that when cryonically preserved sleepers eventually awaken, they will be equipped with fully functional mechanized bodies, or at least bodies whose circulatory systems will have been repaired by nanobots that could be circulated through their arteries, repairing the damage caused by thawing. At the opposite end of the spectrum, bionics is now being used in medicine in the relatively innocuous forms of pacemakers and hearing aids. This not only demonstrates the less sensational side of human augmentation—it establishes that, in very practical terms, the medical application of bionics technology serves to extend the lifespan of its recipients. Thus bionics also serves the central aim of the cryonics movement: life extension. Bionics is already with us to stay, and as of yet there has been no notable ‘chastened return’ from its usage. Cryonics, on the other hand, has yet to actually function as a proven method of life extension. Nevertheless, cryonics, if perfected, would have an even greater impact on the perceived validity of transhumanist thought than the more modest successes of applied bionics. If the technology of cryonics could be proven safe for use (and this ‘if’ is a very unlikely counterfactual, given that the process of thawing is usually accompanied by severe tissue damage in higher animals) then the laws against the pre-legal-death freezing of human specimens would likely be repealed. The natural limitation of mortality would then be seriously challenged, if not partially overcome. One could, conceivably, move through time with less effort than it currently takes to move through space. For the first time in history, temporal emigration would be a live possibility. This would doubtlessly produce some foreseeable (and some unforeseeable) sociopolitical consequences, which we leave the reader to speculate upon at her leisure. However, successful reanimation after being cryonically frozen is still very much a utopian dream, far removed from the realm of actual practice. Through our research on the subject, we have learned of only two cryonics centers that, today, offer the services of “long term patient care in liquid nitrogen”: namely The Cryonics Institute and the Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Both operate in the USA, with the Cryonics Institute making its services available in the UK through a liaison with a London-based funeral home. One of the founders of the Cryonics Institute, Robert Ettinger, author of The Prospect of Immortality and Man Into Superman (here again, the overall influence of Nietzsche on transhumanist thought might be surmised by readers), claims the cryonics movement began in 1962, after which cryonics organizations began to proliferate. For a fee, clients (whose brain, by law, must be legally dead) have their bodies drained of blood and perfused with glycerol before entering the liquid nitrogen-filled cryo-chamber. The clients are then left, upside down, until such a time as the complications that caused their death can be addressed by medical science, and they might be retrieved, thawed and (ideally) healed. Earlier we mentioned the complications that arise when higher animals are thawed, in that tissue damage can occur due to its crystallization through freezing, and tissues are known to shear during thawing. Unsurprisingly, then, the argument for investing in post-mortem cryonics services focuses more on abstract probability calculations rather than actual revival conditions (which don’t yet exist), with cryostasis presented as giving the client a better chance at eventual revival than either burial or cremation. Recruitment of customers seems to be the chief goal of the Cryonics Institute, and this is based on selling the notion of “build[ing] the long tomorrow”.[9] VII: Skepticism About Cryonics—The Long Today Of course, one might justifiably ask, ‘Will tomorrow ever come?’ Or, more precisely, at what time—if ever—will it be deemed appropriate for the cryonically preserved to be ‘awoken’ from their icy slumbers? What Prince Charming will come for these Sleeping Beauties? Most of these medically dead clients are possessed of diseased and/or mangled bodies—and no doubt imperfectly preserved, like the reportedly seven-time fractured skull of the cryonically preserved baseball great Ted Williams. At what future time will any society have such excess wealth at its disposal as to fund the rehabilitation of these frozen masses, even if it were someday found to be possible? The principle of medical triage would demand that every non-frozen living person at that time were in good health and well provided for before the problem-children of centuries past would merit official attention and reactivation, as their conditions clearly wouldn’t be getting any less stable in their cryo-stasis. At this point we would like to give notice of a novel moral problem of the kind that advances in technology regularly (and inevitably) throw up—a problem that we shall not attempt to resolve in this paper. Readers may take it as a hypothetical example, or as advance warning of a looming conundrum. The question can be put as follows: Do cryonically frozen corpses have a right to be quickened, a right claimable against a society that possesses a level of technology sufficient to bring them back to life? This is not an absurd concern, not least since it should have interest for philosophers engaged with contemporary moral dilemmas. Can the dead have rights? Can they have interests, on the basis of which rights may be imputed? Grant that those who are in need of resuscitation have rights to first aid. Grant that the brain-dead may be ‘allowed to die’. What is the moral standing of the resurrectible dead?[10] Moving on, we cannot ignore the fact that we might face a great risk of contamination in thawing out the victims of past epidemics: some would, no doubt, have died of diseases that future generations may no longer have natural immunities to. This is the same reason that there has been some controversy regarding the possibility of bringing rock samples from future Mars probes back to earth for analysis: the fear of a Martian bacterium reviving itself here after a long period of diapause there (this concern is for the possible realization of a sort of War of the Worlds scenario in reverse—wherein earthlings are cast as the invaders who fall prey to Martian microorganisms—which would no doubt amuse Wells). Let us, for a moment, imagine that if there were cryonics clinics from the Middle Ages in operation that survived until the present day: would we, today, be in any rush to unthaw carriers of the bubonic plague, even if we had it in our power to do so? Or would the risk be too great to the living? And the retrodictable unlikelihood of any business surviving from the Middle Ages to today should give cryonics hopefuls another reason to reconsider their convictions; for what company can be expected to tend to their frozen charges in the face of unforeseen complications introduced by the passage of time? Bankruptcy, disaster, crime, governmental interference, or the eventual collapse of a certain form of government, could all potentially serve to close cryonics firms. In the future, when there may no longer be any living individuals with emotional ties to the clients within the cryo-chambers, these time travelers may nonetheless serve as an important physical link to humanity’s past—as objects of medical, scientific, environmental and anthropological research.[11] Cryonics is currently offered as a burial alternative, but in reality it is more likely that one has donated one’s body to future scientific research in willing one’s remains to be frozen. As in the necromantic rites of ancient Greek and Roman times, the bones of the dead may be utilized to make the past speak—and speak, perhaps, in a clearer and more truthful manner than if there were a living person in their place to tell the story. Not ephemeral ghosts, but microbes and strands of DNA, will speak to posterity on behalf of the frozen dead. There is also the further complication that a frozen subject, even if perfectly and successfully revived, might not be ready for the future they found themselves in. As in the fictional cases of Rip Van Winkle or Urashima Taro, the future that one awakes to might be largely upsetting or incomprehensible to the quickened. No doubt the effects of ‘culture shock’ would pale in comparison to those of ‘temporal trauma’. Alternately, as in the ultimate fate of Wells’ Time Traveler, potentially one could become indefinitely stuck in one’s time machine…never to be retrieved from the cryo-chamber. A worse fate still to contemplate, for those who have optimistically arranged for their bodies to be frozen, is that they could be allowed to thaw and rot—currently, a not unlikely outcome of volunteering one’s corpse for cryonic preservation. VIII: Conclusion The war on time, utilizing the crude weaponry of bionics and cryonics that we have outlined herein, will doubtlessly continue if the generation of malchronetic desires within human hearts persists unabated. Thus the war on time cannot be won until the war on the self is concluded, and malchronetic longing consequently stanched. Then, perhaps, ineffectual wish-fulfillment schemes and primitive attempts at time-travel will cease to be attractive to humankind. Although Nietzsche posits that malchronetic desire, expressed as the will to power, is everywhere, it is also true that the final phase of Nietzsche’s project of liberation involves overcoming the will to power. Nietzsche’s position is, in the end, a post-malcronetic philosophy content with its temporal lot. This is not to say that complacency in the face of experienced malchronia is a justifiable response; this would be like ignoring the symptoms of a disease, discarding valuable phenomenological information without proper warrant. Yet, even if advanced and reliable methods of time travel do become available, the malchronetic agent must still learn to live with herself, amongst others. This, perhaps, is a prerequisite for more sophisticated modes of self-transcendence. Christopher Yorke is currently based in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Tokyo as a visiting research student and Ph.D. candidate from the University of Glasgow. Previous areas in which he has published include ethics, cosmopolitanism, and utopianism. Lois Rowe is a practicing artist and writer currently completing her Master of Fine Arts at the Glasgow School of Art. She has exhibited her work internationally and written extensively on the role of intuition within creative action. References Asahina, E. 1966. Cryobiology. In Freezing and Frost Resistance in Insects, ed. H. T. Meryman, 451-486. New York: Academic Press. Bergonzi, B. (ed.) 1976. H. G. Wells: A collection of critical essays. In Introduction, 1-7. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Edwards, R. G. and Steptoe, P. C. 1977. The freezing of mammalian embryos. In The Relevance of the Frozen Storage of Human Embryos in Clinical Practice, 235-250. Oxford: Ciba Foundation. Ettinger, R. C. W. Cryonics Institute: A brief history and overview. (accessed January 3, 2005). Kac, E. Foundation and development of robotic art. Art Journal 56(3): 60-67. Kanwisher, J. W. 1966. Cryobiology. In Freezing in Intertidal Animals, ed. H. T. Meryman, 487-494. New York: Academic Press. Nietzsche, F. 1986. Human, all too human. Eds. K. Ameriks and D. M. Clarke, trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Parrinder, P. 1995. Shadows of the future: H. G. Wells, science fiction and prophecy. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Pritchett, V. S. 1976. H. G. Wells: A collection of critical essays. In The Scientific Romances, ed. B. Bergonzi, 32-38. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Stelarc. 1998. Virtual futures. In From Psycho-Body to Cyber-Systems: Images as Post-Human Entities, eds. J. B. Dixon and E. J. Cassidy, 116-123. New York: Routledge. Weibel, P. 1999. Ars Electronica: Facing the future. In Virtual Worlds: The Emperor’s New Bodies, pp. 207-223 in. Timothy Druckrey, ed. Cambridge, M.A.: The MIT Press. Wells, H. G. 1940. All aboard for Ararat. London: Secker & Warburg. Wells, H. G. 1942. The conquest of time. London: Watts & Co. West, A. 1976. H. G. Wells: A collection of critical essays. In H. G. Wells, ed. B. Bergonzi, 8-24. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Notes [1] Stelarc, “From Psycho-Body to Cyber-Systems: Images as Post-Human Entities”, Virtual Futures, eds. J. B. Dixon and E. J. Cassidy (New York: Routledge, 1988), 120. [2] E. Asahina, “Freezing and Frost Resistance in Insects”, Cryobiology, ed. H. T. Meryman (New York: Academic Press, 1966), 453. [3] J. W. Kanwisher, “Freezing in Intertidal Animals”, Cryobiology, ed. H. T. Meryman (London and New York: Academic Press, 1966), 486. [4] R. G. Edwards and P. C. Steptoe, “The relevance of the frozen storage of human embryos in clinical practice”, The Freezing of Mammalian Embryos (Oxford: Ciba Foundation, 1977), 235. [5] F. Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human, eds. K. Ameriks and D. M. Clarke, trans. R. J. Hollingdale (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 7. [6] B. Bergonzi (ed.), “Introduction”, H. G. Wells: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976), 6. [7] A. West, “H. G. Wells”, H. G. Wells: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. B. Bergonzi (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976), 14. [8] V.S. Pritchett, “The Scientific Romances”, H. G. Wells: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. B. Bergonzi (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976), 36. [9] R. Ettinger, “Cryonics Institute: A Brief History and Overview” (accessed January 3rd, 2005). [10] We are indebted to Prof. Dudley Knowles for bringing this line of inquiry to our attention. [11] Just as the remains of the ‘Hobbit’ primate (found on the Indonesian Island of Flores) are, in our own time, a valuable anthropological resource, the bodies of the cryonics clients of today might serve to
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Yorke, C. (n.d.). Malchronia: Cryonics and Bionics as Primitive Weapons in the War on Time. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 15(1), 73–85. Retrieved 12 16, 2016, from

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The DAA Self-Regulatory Principles

This Application of the DAA Principles of Transparency and Control to Data Used Across Devices explains how the existing Digital Advertising Alliance (“DAA”) Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising (“OBA Principles”) and Multi-Site Data (“MSD Principles”), and the Application of the Self-Regulatory Principles to the Mobile Environment (“Mobile Guidance”) (collectively, the “Principles”) apply to the practice of using Multi-Site Data and Cross-App Data collected from a particular browser or device for use on a different computer or device. 
This Application of Self-Regulatory Principles to the Mobile Environment guidance explains for covered companies how the existing Digital Advertising Alliance (“DAA”) Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising (“OBA Principles”) and Multi-Site Data (“MSD Principles”) (collectively, the “Self-Regulatory Principles”) apply to certain types of data in the mobile Web site and application environment. This guidance responds to the fact that both First Parties and Third Parties operate across a variety of channels including mobile. The Self-Regulatory Principles apply consistently across these channels, although current implementation may vary based on the technological demands of different channels.

The cross-industry Self-Regulatory Principles for Multi-Site Data augment the Self-Regulatory Principles for Online Behavioral Advertising  (OBA)  by covering the prospective collection of Web site data beyond that collected for OBA purposes.  The existing OBA Principles and definitions remain in full force and effect and are not limited by the new  principles. 

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