David-Uriel Ibarra, aka Eagle Heart

David-Uriel Ibarra, N.D., CHt. aka Eagle Heart

Business Aviation, Alternative Health Care Practitioner, Speaker, Self-Defense Instructor, Certified Fitness Trainer.

Greater Los Angeles Area
Health, Wellness and Fitness
  1. The Virtual Sacred Circle of Nations,
  2. Aviante Health and Wellness Center,
  3. Federal Aviation Administration
  1. United States Air Force – California Air National Guard,
  2. Federal Aviation Administration,
  3. United States Air Force – Reserves
  1. Integrated Energy Therapy (IET)
Ordained Minister, Honorary Doctorate of Divinity – Universal Life Church, Associates of Science in Aircraft Maitenance Technology, Doctorate in Naturopathy, Certified Low-Level Laser Therapist, Certified Quantum Bio-Feedback Therapist, Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist, Certified Advanced Integrated Energy Therapy® (IET®) Practitioner, Certified Reflexologist, Certified Astropsychologist, Certified Jin Shin Jyutsu Practitioner, Certified Matrix Energetics Practitioner, Reiki Master/Teacher, acupressure practitioner, Martial Arts/Self Defense Instructor, and futurist.

Services Offered: Aviation Consulting, Fitness and Martial Arts/Self Defense Training, Integrated Energy Therapy® (IET®), Spiritual Counseling, Life Coach, Low-Level Laser Therapy, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Integrated Reflex-Reiki®, Reiki/Energy Work, Reiki Classes, Reflexology, Meditation, Clinical Hypnotherapy, Sports Hypnotherapy, Smoking Cessation Hypnotherapy, Weight Loss Hypnotherapy, General Hypnotherapy, Shamanic Dream Journeying Therapy, Acupressure, Quantum Bio-Feedback Therapy, Matrix Energetics, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), Astropsychology, General Astrology, Medical Astrology, Jin Shin Jyutsu.


  • Founder

    The Virtual Sacred Circle of Nations
     – Present (9 years 11 months)

    Founded in 2008, The Virtual Sacred Circle of Nations (VSCN) is made up of spiritually like-minded people, connected virtually through the advent of technology, with a common goal… to bring about spiritual awareness and growth in the most compassionate, loving, and pain-free way possible, to be of service to those in need, and to assist the shift to a more spiritually and heart-centered reality. …This shift is called “the quickening.”

    The purpose of THEVSCN is to bring together spiritually like-minded people into a virtual group circle to share current world events and information, to hold classes and other services that assist in spiritual growth, and to hold spiritually-centered ceremonies and meditations for the purpose of assisting the “quickening,” which is a main component for our spiritual growth.

    With the use of technology, THEVSCN also serves as a sounding board for all to share experiences, fears, knowledge, wisdom, etc., so we all can learn and grow at all levels of body, mind, and spirit. By providing a place where we all can discuss current events that need healing attention, we then can send heart-centered healing to those areas.

    THEVSCN Ministry: THEVSCN accomplishes its purpose by offering classes in astrology, Qi-Gong, Meditation, Reiki, and Self-Defense. THEVSCN also offers Sacred Circle Ceremonies in a virtual gathering, House and Office Clearings, Smudging Ceremonies, Spiritual Counseling, Spiritual Journey Tours, Weddings; Vows; and Civil Union Ceremonies, free Distance Healing and Prayers Services, and opportunities to attend group events so we can all share our knowledge and wisdom with all who seek it to better assist us in raising our consciousness, to become one global consciousness, and to help create a heart-centered reality for all.

    Alternative health and wellness services are offered to THEVSCN members through Aviante Health and Wellness Center®.

    Facebook: www.facebook.com/thevscn
    Blogger: www.thevscn.blogspot.com

  • Co- Founder

    Aviante Health and Wellness Center
     – Present (12 years 11 months)

    Aviante Health and Wellness Center (AHWC) integrates various health and healing modalities to create a multi-dimensional approach to healing. By directly affecting the three primary components of body, mind, and spirit at the same time, there is a much deeper relaxation response, a more dramatic and long-term healing response, and a much stronger sense of well-being for the client after a session.

    Website: www.aviantehwc.com

  • Regional Staff Specialist

    Federal Aviation Administration
     – Present (16 years)

    I work closely with Regional Counsel on the processing of enforcement cases generated by Flight Standards field inspectors. I evaluate operators’ manuals, programs, and policies and procedures per FAR’s and FAA policies and procedures. I manage the Designated Airworthiness Representative and Organization Designation Authorization (DAR / ODA) program, the Flight Standards Emergency Preparedness/Continuity of Operation (COOP) program, the Capstone and NAS Free Flight Programs, and FAR Part 91 (Subpart K) Fractional Ownership Programs.

    I also have regional oversight for Major Repair and Alteration Inspector Authorizations, Avionics Certifications, and the Certification Service Oversight Process (CSOP). I respond to congressional correspondence from AWP-1 and AFS-1.

    I determine, with input from the branch management and staff, what data must be gathered and used to base a recommendation or decision on. I make recommendations to requesting organizations or make decisions on the best course of action to be undertaken. I have initiated inter-regional coordination for the transfer of several air carrier certificates.

    As a former team member of the Surveillance Evaluation Program (SEP), I ensured that risks associated with the program were identified and resolved. This includes air carrier based risks and FAA risks.

  • Logistics Planner

    United States Air Force – California Air National Guard
     –  (3 years 9 months)

    Prepared, monitored, coordinated, and consolidated logistics annexes for operational plans and orders, programming plans and general support contingency, and exercise plans. I monitored and reported limiting factors. I prepared, evaluated, and monitored deployment planning, dispersal, recovery and reconstitution.

    Assisted in collecting, assembling, and forwarding of logistics inputs to plans. I inputted, extracted, and interpreted data from automated information systems.

    Coordinated deployment taskings and directed logistics plans activities. I also inspected and evaluated logistics plans processes and provided technical logistics planning support.

  • Aviation Safety Inspector

    Federal Aviation Administration
     –  (4 years 2 months)

    Conduct enforcement investigations and prepare final reports and recommendations on disposition of the investigations.

    Provide verbal and/or written technical assistance to legal counsel and given depositions. Review operations and maintenance manuals associated with certification requirements of air carriers, air agencies, and air operators for accuracy and Federal Aviation Regulation compliance.

    Certificate air agencies and evaluate air carriers, air agencies, and air operators according to the Federal Aviation Regulations and perform surveillance activities associated with air carriers, air agencies, air operators, airmen, and designees.

    Conduct accident investigations on air carrier and general aviation aircraft and coordinate with National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigators and with other state officials in determining the cause of an aircraft accident.

  • Aviation Safety Inspector

    Federal Aviation Administration
     –  (4 years 2 months)

    Assured that aviation organizations and airmen complied with regulatory requirements, and reported deficiencies to the principal inspector or supervisor.

    Conducted enforcement investigations and prepared final reports and recommendations on disposition and performed emergency suspension of certificates. I conducted reexamination of certificated airmen and of airline operators.

    Conducted investigations of public complaints, congressional inquiries and aircraft incidents and accidents. Provided verbal and/or written technical assistance to legal counsel and given depositions. Reviewed manuals associated with certification requirements of air carriers, air agencies, and air operators for accuracy and Federal Aviation Regulation compliance.

    Certificated air agencies and evaluated air carriers, air agencies, and air operators according to the Federal Aviation Regulations.

    Performed surveillance activities associated with air carriers, air agencies, air operators, airmen, and designees. I have taken appropriate corrective action for deficiencies noted and have made recommendations to principal inspectors or supervisors.

    Conducted accident investigations on air carrier and general aviation aircraft. Coordinated with National Transportation Safety Board investigators and with other state officials in determining the cause of an aircraft accident. Also verbally and in written form made recommendations to NTSB investigators and other federal officials on the prevention of aircraft accidents.

  • Logistics Planner

    United States Air Force – Reserves
     –  (1 year)

    Prepared, monitored, coordinated, and consolidated logistics annexes for operational plans and orders, programming plans and general support, contingency, and exercise plans. I monitored and reported limiting factors. I prepared, evaluated, and monitored deployment planning, dispersal, recovery and reconstitution.

    Assisted in collecting, assembling, and forwarding of logistics inputs to plans. I inputted, extracted, and interpreted data from automated information systems.

    Coordinated deployment taskings and directed logistics plans activities. I also inspected and evaluated logistics plans processes and provided technical logistics planning support.

  • Logistics Planner

    Unites States Air Force – Michigan Air National Guard
     –  (1 year 3 months)

    Prepared, monitored, coordinated, and consolidated logistics annexes for operational plans and orders, programming plans and general support, contingency, and exercise plans. I monitored and reported limiting factors. I prepared, evaluated, and monitored deployment planning, dispersal, recovery and reconstitution.

  • Aircraft Technician / Supervisor

    United States Air Force – Michigan Air National Guard
     –  (4 months)

    Performed all maintenance and servicing on C-130 aircraft. Also trained subordinates and participated in implementing all phases of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance on aircraft.

  • Supervisor

    United States Air Force – California Air National Guard
     –  (1 year 6 months)

    Supervised and performed all maintenance and servicing on KC-135R aircraft. Also trained subordinates and participated in implementing all phases of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance on aircraft.

  • Avionics Technician

    American Airlines
     –  (2 years 7 months)

    Read and interpreted wiring and LAMM schematics to determine troubleshooting procedures for aircraft systems. Also performed “A” and “B” inspections on airline fleet and accomplished avionics functions for “return to service” checks.

  • Supervisor

    United States Air Force – Reserves
     –  (6 years 11 months)

    Supervised and performed all maintenance and servicing on KC-10A aircraft. Also trained and supervised subordinates and participated in implementing all phases of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance on aircraft.

  • Aircraft Technician

    UPS – Aircraft Maintenance
     –  (1 year 8 months)

    Performed all functions of aircraft maintenance, avionics, and aircraft servicing on all UPS aircraft. Also supervised aircraft maintenance and gateway operations personnel.

  • Avionics Technician

    American Airlines
     –  (1 year)

    Read and interpreted wiring and LAMM schematics to determine troubleshooting procedures for aircraft systems. Also performed “A” and “B” inspections on airline fleet and accomplished avionics functions for “return to service” checks.

  • Aircraft Technician

    Continental Airlines
     –  (4 months)

    Performed overhaul maintenance (“C” and “D” checks) on 747-100; -200, DC-10, and A300 aircraft. Also serviced and performed function checks on all aircraft systems.

  • Quality Assurance Customer Service Representative

    McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Company
     –  (8 months)

    Reviewed customer inspection requirements with customer and coordinated with contracts, planning, engineering program and special modifications offices. I also supervised and assisted QA in audits for the customer.

  • Quality Assurance Inspector

    McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Company
     –  (2 years 1 month)

    Read and interpreted engineering drawings and schematics. Also inspected mechanical subassemblies and installations and performed function checks on installed equipment. I supervised and assisted on QA audits.

  • Aircraft Technician

    United States Air Force – Active Duty
     –  (4 years 1 month)

    Performed aircraft inspections, maintenance, functional checks, aircraft repairs, servicing, and troubleshooting procedures on KC-135Q aircraft systems. Also performed supervision of maintenance personnel on all maintenance performed on assigned aircraft.

Volunteer Experience & Causes


  • English

    Native or bilingual proficiency

  • Spanish

    Native or bilingual proficiency


  • Clinical Hypnotherapist
  • Naturopathy
  • Aviation Consultant
  • Spiritual Counseling
  • Energy Healing
  • Healing
  • Reiki
  • Meditation
  • Hypnotherapy

Rob Moore

Dalyn Miller PR Logo

The Podcast Team




90 Days of Considerations

Contact: Jimmy Dwyer 

The Podcast Team • 703-772-1495

Rob Moore, Author
Rob Moore
click here for hi-res images

The key to conscious living…

About Rob Moore

What I most want to drive home is that the process outlined in The Consciousness Papers and likewise reflected in Select Wisdom is about you connecting with your own greatest wisdom and understanding. In turn, you will have the tools to make the most valuable choices and take the most effective action to get where you most desire.
– Rob Moore

Ever since A Course in Miracles transformed the self-study / self-awareness arena from a niche market into a multi-million dollar industry, people have searched for guides, gimmicks and gurus to help them achieve spiritual transformation. Rob Moore, author of THE CONSCIOUSNESS PAPERSand the companion workbook SELECT WISDOM, spent decades on the search himself, never imagining that one day he would be called to deliver messages to help guide others to the knowledge that was being revealed through him.

The Consciousness PapersFollowing a near-death experience in which Rob left the body and learned that everything beyond this life is going to be fine, he was able to embrace a new perspective on his existence here in the present armed with the knowledge that things were “as they should be.” This escalated his internal desire to reach higher levels of truth, but meant deep changes like ending a long-time dependence on smoking, which he successfully overcame.

Less than a month later, Rob perceived his first words from a higher place. As messages came down the pike, it rapidly became apparent that what was happening was beyond anything his brain could possibly produce; entire concepts were delivered to him that were beyond anything he had put conscious study into. He wrote them down and kept coming back to these pages again and again. As days passed into weeks and eventually years, the words became Rob’s reality and, more profoundly, they illustrated levels of reality beyond his ability to cognitively formulate into sentences. After ruminating on these words for ten years, he felt compelled to publish THE CONSCIOUSNESS PAPERS: 90 Days of Consideration and its companion piece, SELECT WISDOM. Together they represent the organizing of these ideas into a simple, twice a day meditation on ‘being’ that will add up to a more fulfilling, rich and conscious life.

Social Media

facebook   The Consciousness Papers
Twitter   @r0b1rob
YouTube   The Consciousness Papers
Instagram   @TheConsciousnessPapers
Website   https://theconsciousnesspapers.com/

For more than a year, while meditating Rob Moorehad been visually perceiving that a different level of guidance awaited his arrival. Having already devoted himself to meditation for most of his adult life yet still maintaining a dependence on cigarettes, it was revealed that once he rose beyond that addiction, audible perception with higher guides would follow.

Early in 2006, after numerous attempts, Rob at last walked away from smoking and chose the higher level of fulfillment that was clearly within reach. Shortly thereafter, the words you find in these pages began pouring forth. But the task did not end there. Rob would need to live these words over the next ten years and come to not only understand them but to embody these ideas fully.

Suggested Talking Points

  • How did The Consciousness Paperscome about? What was the driving force that inspired you to write down what your were receiving?
  • Tell us about your upbringing. How does it figure into your overall journey and to the genesis of this work?
  • You’ve spoken and written about your experience with A Course in Miracles. Explain a bit about that work and how it influenced you. How is this book and your journey similar to that work? How is it different?
  • You spent ten years with this material before developing the book and sharing these ideas. What kind of effect has this material had on you personally? Why did you wait so long to turn it into a book?
  • How did you arrive at the daily format for this course of study?
  • In your introduction you say this book is for everybody but not necessarily for everybody at the same time in humanity’s timeline. What do you mean by that? Who would you say this book is speaking to?
  • What do you think will help readers get the most from these ideas?
  • You also published a companion book to The Consciousness Papers called Select Wisdom. What is the purpose of this book and how do the two work together?
  • How did the format of Select Wisdomimpact your own understanding of the material you were developing for The Consciousness Papers?
  • Do you feel you’re at a point where you have mastered the ideas you present in The Consciousness Papers and Select Wisdom?
  • What can readers expect as a result of committing to the 90 Day study you’ve made available in The Consciousness Papers?
  • You’ve said you don’t consider yourself a guru or a spiritual guide. Why not? And if not, how do you see your role in other people’s spiritual journey?
  • What do you see as next on the horizon for you, your own journey and the words and ideas of The Consciousness Papers?
About Dalyn Miller Public Relations

Dalyn Miller Public Relations represents a variety of lifestyle-focused clients and products including experts and authors in the areas of diet, health, fitness, cooking, self-help and more. If this project is not appropriate to you or your demographic, we may have one (or more) that is appropriate.

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Theresa J Morris

Author, Investigative Journalist, Minister
ACO Ascension Center Organization for 501 C 3 Charitable Organizations, Inc.
Theresa J Morris, Minister
Theresa J Morris Ministries
Educational Websites and Blogs for
Ascension Center Organization
Faith Based Health & Wellness
Spiritual Education Entertainment Media
American Communications Online

Spiritual Science with Universal Life Ministers
Ascension is committed to delivering compassionate, personalized guidance to all, with special attention to persons living impoverished in the United States. Ascension Centers Online Community. American Communications Online.
ACO Association for 501C 3 Charitable Organizations, Inc. .

Listed with Universal Life Monasteries, Modesto, CA. USA
Spiritual Education Entertainment with the Ascension Center Internet Church Online
Every Sunday 8-10 E/7-9 Central/6-8 Mtn/5-7 Pac.
God Has No Religion however, we share Spiritual Science and we believe Alien Civilizations Exist.
We are Lightworkers and Truthseekers of the Ascension Age called Golden Age in India.
We share Art, Culture, Education, Science, Technology, History, Folklife, Pop culture, Media, Press, News and Publishing.
We share God Realization of the Ascension Age. Spiritual Science of the Ascension Center Education also known as ACE Folklife Association, We share ancient cultures origin and new thought teachings.

Cosmos Expo Magazine
Peer Review Journal

We do research and share Educational Research Association Community Online Press. We share peer review journals and blogs. We are known among social media groups.
Some people now interested in the science of our ancient cultures origin and spiritual science in general.
We should begin researching categories for our various topics when not doing interviews but have panel discussions on our radio shows.

Let me know
 Keywords Research
 Competition Analysis
 Optimized Content Creation
 Keywords Optimization
 Submission to Search Engines and Directories
 Submission to Article Directory
Theresa J Morris
American Communications Online
TJ Morris Agency
TJ Morris Media
TJ Morris Reporter
3406 Green Briar Court Apt#A
Gulf Breeze, FL 32563

About Us


Ascension Age was founded in November 1989 through November 1993 in Honolulu, Hawaii and moved it’s mailing address office to Maui, Hawaii in 2007.
Non-denominational Christian Church, and a member of the ACO Ascension Center Organization. Theresa Janette Thurmond was founder and minister/counselor.

The church was founded as a small group after Theresa J Thurmond attended the Gold Pyramid church with Stephen Halpern in 1985 , the father of New Age Music, in Houston, Texas. Theresa also known now as TJ Morris received a calling by God and was called to the front of the church for a laying on of hands which began her spiritual journey on her own ministry spiritual path to Hawaii.

Theresa then received revelations as what in outreach is called an avatar oracle and has written a book called Avatar Oracle. She began using convention tools including from the original kabalistic terms as the tree of life and this included channeling her higher consciousness, and what many call divine revelation.

Theresa was part of the 11-11-87 New Harmonic Conversion. Theresa attended People Synergistically Involved and completed the full required studies in seminars up to receiving the book at the ranch in California.

All outreach was seen as the spiritual path history and this lead to creating the Ascension Center Church of Hawaii with the friends who began the Spiritual World Network (SWN), the World Information Network (WIN), and the original first Psychic Network recorded in Honolulu, Hawaii as a not for profit incorporated business. Theresa has the original Ascension Center Hawaii

Psychic Awakening Classes Handbook which she used to teach spiritual awakening classes with for Dr. Laura Sturgis, Ph.d. of Oahu, Hawaii in 1993.

Since that time, Theresa moved to Kentucky for 20 years before moving to Gulf Breeze, Florida. She now shares her spiritual world Network with those interested in her spiritual path of awakening consciousness and body-mind-spirit health and wellness outreach ministries. Spiritual path lessons are given on TJ Morris ET Radio Network as the ACO Ascension Center Organization in the United States of America in American Communications Online as Spiritual Education Entertainment…

Benedict Howard, Health Advocate, Visionary, Hawaii USA

Benedict Howard
Health Advocate
Visionary of Hawaii

Benedict Howard will share his life story as a visionary and health advocate on Ascension Center Radio Show hosted by Janet Lessin and Theresa J Morris. Ascension Center is on Revolution Radio Network and can be found at FreedomSlips.com on Studio B. Learning about healing modalities Benedict has learned from experience and now shares with others what he has learned from his own chronic back injuries.

Benedick Howard

Health Advocate of Hawaii



Benedict Howard
Life Coach – Health Advocate – Hawaii

Visionary, Benedick Howard and how to change the face of medicine

enjoys life. Lives in Hawaii and is assisting others as a Life coach with Shaman experiences with their own emotional health education and life fulfillment.


Travelled learning from various cultures about how health and healing is instrumental in our overall welfare. Always about the shift in the reality for us all has been living in the now. His learning changed his purpose in life and his lessons on health is now shared.

Benedick Howard, is a Wellness Coach expert who empowers motivated clients – those who have grown tired of the deadly medical treadmill – to regain their health through the application of his wellness, pain-busting wellness coaching. His cutting edge system uses technologies that enable clients to quickly and competently manage complicated health issues at home.  He is a visionary changing the face of medicine and has been featured internationally on PBS and British TV. He was interviewed by Sharon McGrail on  EcoChef Radio Show Online Health Radio at Blog Talk Radio with theecochef on BlogTalkRadio.

Health Advocate

For more than four decades, Benedick Howard honed his skills in healing modalities and discovered the real and lasting health benefits of the various application strategies of microcurrent in order to solve pain, boost energy and rejuvenate the body naturally. In this interview, Benedick shared his life story and how SCENAR technology changed his life for the best. Finally, learn how you can also achieve these best results using microcurrent therapy.

Childhood injury and lack of medical solution

At the age of 14, Benedick sustained a terrible injury after a block of a partially standing wall fell on his head. Since then, he lived with chronic pain. Doctors suggested surgery but with no guaranteed results. He could not run. As the pain progressed over the years, he also developed asthma, lower back pain, frozen upper back.

While no medical solution was offered to him, he knew that one way or another he would find a way to live out of the pain and get back his life so he could do the things he wants.

Early days as an engineer

Professionally speaking, Benedick is an engineer. He spent several years working for big corporations. As a development engineer for GE, he created patents to help mine out ore quickly. Armed with his out-of-the-box thinking, Benedick soon realized that the corporate world was not meant for him.

He soon went to South Africa and traveled extensively. He met various tribes like the Dogon and Ituri pygmies. The impact of this travel ingrained a change in his mindset.

Understanding the essence of healing

When he returned to the United States in 1987, developing stress and pain management sound healing environments in an attempt to resolve his sometimes excruciating neck and back pain. These powerful musical massage platforms went worldwide after he designed and implemented training methods for a wide range of psycho-physical activation and awareness. They were also very helpful for managing his pain levels, but sometimes as with other therapies like acupuncture and chiropractic work, it did not completely resolve the underlying causes.

Becoming a microcurrent therapy expert in SCENAR technology

In 2002, Benedick discovered SCENAR (Self Controlled Electrical Neuro Adaptive Regulation). SCENAR utilizes microcurrent biofeedback that adapts and regulates electrical frequencies to the skin. Later on, he trained to the Master’s level with Professor Revenko and helped many clients. He amassed more than 1,500 pages of teleconferences discussing application strategies and techniques to fully maximize the potential of the simplest microcurrent device. He also appeared on national TV, in front of 8 million people, demonstrating sound healing and SCENAR work. Today, Benedick continues to get the message out about SCENAR microcurrent therapy. He offers beginner, intermediate, advanced and master level wellness training using the latest microcurrent techniques and application strategies.


ACO American Communications Online Research (2017) Web Wars

ACO Research for all Club Members of American Communication Online

INTERNET ONLINE WEB Wars HISTORY for our own use and research.

Search results for Web Wars

  • yglass, Inc.

Not to be confused with Spyglass Entertainment.

Spyglass, Inc.

Former type


Traded as





acquired by OpenTV




1990; 27 years ago


NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign




Champaign, USA


Internet browser intellectual property

Spyglass, Inc. (former NASDAQ ticker symbol SPYG), was an Internet software company based in ChampaignIllinois.

The company, founded in 1990, was an offshoot of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and created to commercialize and support technologies from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). For several years, it focused on data visualization tools, such as graphing packages and 3D rendering engines.[1] It became most known for its version of the Mosaic web browser.


In May 1994, Spyglass licensed NCSA’s Mosaic browser for several million dollars, with the intent to develop their own Web browser.[2]However, NCSA’s development effort had resulted in different features, user interfaces, and codebases for each of its major platforms: UNIXMicrosoft Windows, and classic Mac OS. Spyglass therefore created its own Mosaic codebase in which most source code and all features were shared between platforms.[citation needed]

Spyglass offered a 30-day trial version for download, but did not actually sell the product to end-users. Instead, it licensed the code to re-sellers that delivered either an unmodified Spyglass Mosaic (e.g., O’Reilly and Associates) or a browser based on the Spyglass codebase (as did CompuServeIBM and Ipswitch).[3] Among the browsers produced under license using Spyglass Mosaic’s codebase was also Microsoft‘s Internet Explorer.

In addition to the major desktop platforms, Spyglass ported Mosaic to other systems including Nintendo 64 for the SharkWire Onlinesystem.[4]

Browser wars

Main article: Browser wars

Netscape Communications Corporation, co-founded by Marc Andreessen, released its flagship Netscape Navigator browser in October 1994, and the company soon became the web browser industry leader. Microsoft recognized the potential of the web, and wanting to get into the browser game as soon as possible, decided to license an existing browser rather than build one from scratch.[citation needed]

After Microsoft lost out to AOL for BookLink‘s browser in November 1994, their talks with Spyglass progressed.[5] In 1995, Microsoft licensed Mosaic from Spyglass as the basis of Internet Explorer 1.0, which was released as an add-on to Windows 95 in the Microsoft Plus! software package. The deal stipulated that Spyglass would receive a base quarterly fee for the Mosaic license plus a royalty from Microsoft’s Internet Explorer revenue.[6]

Microsoft subsequently bundled Internet Explorer with Windows, and thus (making no direct revenues on IE) paid only the minimum quarterly fee. In 1997, Spyglass threatened Microsoft with a contractual audit, in response to which Microsoft settled for US$8 million.[6][7]

All versions of the Internet Explorer created before Internet Explorer 7 (released October 18, 2006) acknowledged Spyglass as the licensor for the IE browser code. The About window on these versions contained the text “Distributed under a licensing agreement with Spyglass, Inc.”

Web server technology

Spyglass created and marketed a commercially supported web server for Unix and Windows NT, variously called Spyglass Server and Server SDK. The product was announced in March 1995[8] and became available in July 1995.[9] Like the Netscape server that was already on the market, the Spyglass Server included an application programming interface that allowed server-side applications to run in the server’s process. The two server platforms differed in their approach to security, with Spyglass using the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (SHTTP), while Netscape used its own Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).[8] Spyglass did not offer their server as a retail product, instead licensing it in volume to original equipment manufacturers, as it did with its browser.[8] The largest licensee was Oracle Corporation.[citation needed]

End of Spyglass

On March 26, 2000, OpenTV bought out Spyglass in a stock swap worth $2.5 billion. The acquisition was completed July 24, 2000. In the deal, they received both Device Mosaic, an embedded web browser, and Prism, a content delivery and transformation system.[10]


  1. Jump up^ Sink, Eric (15 April 2003). “Memoirs From the Browser Wars”. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
  2. Jump up^ Booker, Ellis (29 Aug 1994). “Spyglass to commercialize future Mosaic versions”Computerworld.
  3. Jump up^ Ayre, Rick; Mace, Thomas (12 March 1996). “Just Browsing”PC Mag. Ziff Davis.
  4. Jump up^ “SharkWire Online(TM) by InterAct Allows Gamers To Get Online, In-Touch and Ahead” (Press release). Hunt Valley, MD: InterAct Accessories, Inc. PR Newswire. May 12, 1999. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  5. Jump up^ Wallace, James (1997), Overdrive, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-18041-6.
  6. Jump up to:a b Elstrom, Peter (22 January 1997). “MICROSOFT’S $8 MILLION GOODBYE TO SPYGLASS”Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  7. Jump up^ Thurrott, Paul (22 January 1997). “Microsoft and Spyglass kiss and make up”. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  8. Jump up to:a b c Booker, Ellis (27 March 1995). “Web servers move in different directions”Computerworld.
  9. Jump up^ “Spyglass, Inc. Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 1997”. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  10. Jump up^ Boulton, Clint (27 March 2000). “OpenTV Buys Spyglass”. Retrieved 9 February 2011.

External links

Brief profile of Spyglass from www.omimo.be at the Wayback Machine (archived October 11, 2007)

1st Netscape Communications History




Internet, Software, & Telecommunication


April 4, 1994; 23 years ago
(as Mosaic Communications Corporation)


Mountain ViewCaliforniaU.S. (as an independent company)
DullesVirginia, U.S.
(after becoming a part of AOL)

Key people

Marc AndreessenJim Clarkand William Foss (founders); James Barksdale (CEO)


Internet suite
Web browser
Internet service provider
Web portal

Number of employees

2,500[1] (2002)


AOL (1999–2017)
Oath Inc. (2017–present)



Netscape Communications (formerly known as Netscape Communications Corporation or Netscape) is an American computer services company known for its web browserNetscape Navigator.

When Netscape was an independent company, its headquarters were in Mountain View, California[2]

Netscape’s web browser was once dominant but it has lost most of that glare to its competitors Internet Explorer during the so-called first browser war. The usage share of Netscape had fallen from over ninety percent in the mid-1990s[3] to less than one percent by the end of 2006.[4]

Netscape is credited with creating JavaScript language, the most widely used language for client-side scripting of web pages. The company is also known for developing the SSL which is used for securing online communications that was used before its successor TLS took over. [5]

Netscape stock traded from 1995 until 1999 when it was acquired by AOL in a pooling-of-interests transaction ultimately worth US $10 billion.[6][7] Shortly before its acquisition by AOL, Netscape released the source code for its browser and created the Mozilla Organization to coordinate future development of its product.[8] The Mozilla Organization rewrote the entire browser’s source code based on the Gecko rendering engine;[9] all future Netscape releases were based on this rewritten code. The Gecko engine would later be used to power the Mozilla Foundation’s Firefoxbrowser.

Under AOL, Netscape’s browser development continued until December 2007 when AOL announced that the company would stop supporting the Netscape browser as of early 2008.[10][11] As of 2011, AOL has continued to use the Netscape brand to market a discount Internet service provider.[12][13]


Early years

Netscape Communications wants you to forget all the highway metaphors you’ve ever heard about the Internet. Instead, think about an encyclopedia—one with unlimited, graphically rich pages, connections to E-mail and files, and access to Internet newsgroups and online shopping.

Netscape NavigatorMacworld (May 1995)[14]

Netscape was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World Wide Web.[15][16] It was founded under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation on April 4, 1994, the brainchild of Jim Clarkwho had recruited Marc Andreessen as co-founder and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as investors. The first meeting between Clark and Andreessen was never truly about a software or service like Netscape, but more about a product that was similar to Nintendo.[17] Clark recruited other early team members from SGI and NCSA MosaicJim Barksdale came on board as CEO in January 1995.[16] Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen originally created a 20-page concept pitch for an online gaming network to Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 console, but a deal was never reached. Marc Andreessen explains, “If they had shipped a year earlier, we probably would have done that instead of Netscape.”[18][18]

The company’s first product was the web browser, called Mosaic Netscape 0.9, released on October 13, 1994. Within four months of its release, it had already taken three-quarters of the browser market.[17] It became the main browser for Internet users in such a short time due to its superiority over other competition, like Mosaic.[17] This browser was subsequently renamed Netscape Navigator, and the company took the ‘Netscape’ name (coined by employee Greg Sands,[16] although it was also a trademark of Cisco Systems[19]) on November 14, 1994[20] to avoid trademark ownership problems with NCSA, where the initial Netscape employees had previously created the NCSA Mosaic web browser. The Mosaic Netscape web browser did not use any NCSA Mosaic code.[21] The internal codename for the company’s browser was Mozilla, which stood for “Mosaic killer”, as the company’s goal was to displace NCSA Mosaic as the world’s number one web browser.[22] A cartoon Godzilla-like lizard mascot was drawn by artist-employee Dave Titus,[23] which went well with the theme of crushing the competition. The Mozilla mascot featured prominently on Netscape’s web site in the company’s early years. However, the need to project a more “professional” image (especially towards corporate clients) led to this being removed.

The original green and purple Mozilla mascot, a Godzilla-like lizard which represented the company’s goal of producing the browser that would be the “Mosaic killer”

On August 9, 1995, Netscape made an extremely successful IPO. The stock was set to be offered at US$14 per share, but a last-minute decision doubled the initial offering to US$28 per share. The stock’s value soared to US$75 during the first day of trading, nearly a record for first-day gain. The stock closed at US$58.25, which gave Netscape a market value of US$2.9 billion. While it was unusual for a company to go public prior to becoming profitable, Netscape’s revenues had, in fact, doubled every quarter in 1995.[24]The success of this IPO subsequently inspired the use of the term “Netscape moment” to describe a high-visibility IPO that signals the dawn of a new industry.[25][26] During this period, Netscape also pursued a publicity strategy (crafted by Rosanne Siino, then head of public relations) packaging Andreessen as the company’s “rock star.”[27] The events of this period ultimately landed Andreessen, barefoot, on the cover of Time magazine.[28]

Netscape advertised that “the web is for everyone” and stated one of its goals was to “level the playing field” among operating systems by providing a consistent web browsing experience across them. The Netscape web browser interface was identical on any computer. Netscape later experimented with prototypes of a web-based system which would enable users to access and edit their files anywhere across a network, no matter what computer or operating system they happened to be using. This did not escape the attention of Microsoft, which viewed the commoditization of operating systems as a direct threat to its bottom line, i.e. a move from Windows to another operating system would yield a similar browsing experience thus reducing barriers to change. It is alleged that several Microsoft executives visited the Netscape campus in June 1995 to propose dividing the market (an allegation denied by Microsoft and, if true, would have breached antitrust laws), which would have allowed Microsoft to produce web browser software for Windows while leaving all other operating systems to Netscape.[29] Netscape refused the proposition.

Microsoft released version 1.0 of Internet Explorer as a part of the Windows 95 Plus Pack add-on. According to former Spyglassdeveloper Eric Sink, Internet Explorer was based not on NCSA Mosaic as commonly believed, but on a version of Mosaic developed at Spyglass[30] (which itself was based upon NCSA Mosaic). Microsoft quickly released several successive versions of Internet Explorer, bundling them with Windows, never charging for them, financing their development and marketing with revenues from other areas of the company. This period of time became known as the browser wars, in which Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer added many new features and went through many version numbers (not always in a logical fashion) in attempts to outdo each other. But Internet Explorer had the upper hand, as the amount of manpower and capital dedicated to it eventually surpassed the resources available in Netscape’s entire business. By version 3.0, IE was roughly a feature-for-feature equivalent of Netscape Communicator, and by version 4.0, it was generally considered to be more stable on Windows than on the Macintosh platform. Microsoft also targeted other Netscape products with free workalikes, such as the Internet Information Server (IIS), a web server which was bundled with Windows NT.

Netscape could not compete with this strategy. In fact, it didn’t attempt to. Netscape Navigator was not free to the general public until January 1998,[31] while Internet Explorer and IIS have always been free or came bundled with an operating system and/or other applications. Meanwhile, Netscape faced increasing criticism for the bugs in its products; critics claimed that the company suffered from ‘featuritis‘ – putting a higher priority on adding new features than on making them work properly. This was particularly true with Netscape Navigator 2, which was only on the market for 5 months in early 1996 before being replaced by Netscape Navigator 3. The tide of public opinion, having once lauded Netscape as the David to Microsoft’s Goliath, steadily turned negative, especially when Netscape experienced its first bad quarter at the end of 1997 and underwent a large round of lay-offs in January 1998. Later, former Netscape executives Mike Homer and Peter Currie described the period as “hectic and crazy” and that the company was undone by factors both internal and external.[32]

Open sourcing

January 1998 was also the month that Netscape started the open source Mozilla project. Netscape publicly released the source code of Netscape Communicator 4.0 in the hopes that it would become a popular open source project. It placed this code under the Netscape Public License, which was similar to the GNU General Public License but allowed Netscape to continue to publish proprietary work containing the publicly released code. However, after having released the Communicator 4.0 code this way, Netscape proceeded to work on Communicator 4.5 which was focused on improving email and enterprise functionality. It eventually became clear that the Communicator 4.0 browser was too difficult to develop, and open source development was halted on this codebase. Instead, the open source development shifted to a next generation browser built from scratch. Using the newly built Gecko layout engine, this browser had a much more modular architecture than Communicator 4.0 and was therefore easier to develop with a large number of programmers. It also included an XML user interface language named XUL that allowed single development of a user interface that ran on Windows, Macintosh, and Unix. The slogan for this open sourcing effort, “Free The Lizard”, carried comedic sexual overtones.

The United States Department of Justice filed an antitrust case against Microsoft in May 1998. Netscape was not a plaintiff in the case, though its executives were subpoenaed and it contributed much material to the case, including the entire contents of the ‘Bad Attitude’ internal discussion forum.[33] In October 1998, Netscape acquired web directory site NewHoo for the sum of US$1 million, renamed it the Open Directory Project, and released its database under an open content license.

Acquisition by America Online

America Online (AOL) on November 24, 1998 announced it would acquire Netscape Communications in a tax-free stock-swap valued at US$4.2 billion at the time of the announcement.[34] During this time, Andreessen’s view of Netscape changed; to him, it was no longer just a browser, intranet, extranet, or a software company, but rather an amalgamation of products and services.[35]By the time the deal closed on March 17, 1999, it was valued at US$10 billion.[6][7] This merger was ridiculed by many who believed that the two corporate cultures could not possibly mesh; one of its most prominent critics was longtime Netscape developer Jamie Zawinski.[36] The acquisition was seen as a way for AOL to gain a bargaining chip against Microsoft, to let it become less dependent on the Internet Explorer web browser. Others believed that AOL was interested in Netcenter, or Netscape’s web properties, which drew some of the highest traffic worldwide. Eventually, Netscape’s server products and its Professional Services group became part of iPlanet, a joint marketing and development alliance between AOL and Sun Microsystems. On November 14, 2000, AOL released Netscape 6, based on the Mozilla 0.6 source code. (Version 5 was skipped.) Unfortunately, Mozilla 0.6 was far from being stable yet, and so the effect of Netscape 6 was to further drive people away from the Netscape brand. It was not until August 2001 that Netscape 6.1 appeared, based on Mozilla 0.9.2 which was significantly more robust. A year later came Netscape 7.0, based on the Mozilla 1.0 core.


During the acquisition of Netscape by AOL, joint development and marketing of Netscape software products would occur through the Sun-Netscape Alliance. The software, in the newly branded iPlanet, included “messaging and calendar, collaboration, web, application, directory, and certificate servers”, as well as “production-ready applications for e-commerce, including commerce exchange, procurement, selling, and billing.”[37] In March 2002, when the alliance was ended, “iPlanet became a division of Sun… Sun retained the intellectual property rights for all products and the engineering”[38]

On July 15, 2003, Time Warner (formerly AOL Time Warner) disbanded Netscape. Most of the programmers were laid-off, and the Netscape logo was removed from the building. However, the Netscape 7.2 web browser (developed in-house rather than with Netscape staff, with some work outsourced to Sun’s Beijing development center[39]) was released by AOL on August 18, 2004.[40]

On October 12, 2004, the popular developer website Netscape DevEdge was shut down by AOL. DevEdge was an important resource for Internet-related technologies, maintaining definitive documentation on the Netscape browser, documentation on associated technologies like HTML and JavaScript, and popular articles written by industry and technology leaders such as Danny Goodman. Some content from DevEdge has been republished at the Mozilla website.

After the Sun acquisition by Oracle in January 2010, Oracle continued to sell iPlanet branded applications, which originated from Netscape.[41] Applications include: Oracle iPlanet Web Server and Oracle iPlanet Web Proxy Server.

Final release of the browser

Netscape logo 2005–2007, still used in some portals

The Netscape brand name continued to be used extensively. The company once again had its own programming staff devoted to the development and support for the series of web browsers.[42]Additionally, Netscape also maintained the Propeller web portal, which was a popular social-news site, similar to Digg, which was given a new look in June 2006. AOL marketed a discount ISP service under the Netscape brand name.

A new version of the Netscape browser, Netscape Navigator 9, based on Firefox 2, was released in October 2007. It featured a green and grey interface. In November 2007, IE had 77.4% of the browser market, Firefox 16.0% and Netscape 0.6%, according to Net Applications, an Internet metrics firm.[43] On December 28, 2007, AOL announced that on February 1, 2008 it would drop support for the Netscape web browser and would no longer develop new releases.[10] The date was later extended to March 1[11] to allow a major security update and to add a tool to assist users in migrating to other browsers. These additional features were included in the final version of Netscape Navigator 9 (version, released on February 20, 2008.

Software[ Main article: Netscape (web browser)

Classic releases

Netscape Navigator (versions 0.9–4.08)[

Main article: Netscape Navigator

Netscape Navigator was Netscape’s web browser from versions 1.0–4.8. The first beta versions were released in 1994 and were called Mosaic and later Mosaic Netscape. Then, a legal challenge from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications(makers of NCSA Mosaic), which many of Netscape’s founders used to develop, led to the name Netscape Navigator. The company’s name also changed from Mosaic Communications Corporation to Netscape Communications Corporation.

The browser was easily the most advanced available[citation needed] and so was an instant success, becoming market leader while still in beta.[citation needed] Netscape’s feature-count and market share continued to grow rapidly after version 1.0 was released. Version 2.0 added a full email reader called Netscape Mail, thus transforming Netscape from a single-purpose web browser to an Internet suite. The main distinguishing feature of the email client was its ability to display HTML email. During this period, the entire suite was called Netscape Navigator.

Version 3.0 of Netscape (the first beta was codenamed “Atlas”) was the first to face any serious competition in the form of Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0.[44][citation needed] But Netscape easily remained the number one browser for the time being.

Netscape also released a Gold version of Navigator 3.0 that incorporated WYSIWYG editing with drag and drop between web editor and email components.[45]

Netscape Communicator (versions 4.0–4.8)

Netscape Communicator 4.61 for OS/2 Warp

Main article: Netscape Communicator

Netscape 4 addressed the problem of Netscape Navigator being used as both the name of the suite and the browser contained within it by renaming the suite to Netscape Communicator. After five preview releases in 1996–1997, Netscape released the final version of Netscape Communicator in June 1997. This version, more or less based on Netscape Navigator 3 Code, updated and added new features. The new suite was successful, despite increasing competition from Internet Explorer (IE) 4.0 and problems with the outdated browser core. IE was slow and unstable on the Mac platform until version 4.5.[citation needed] Despite this, Apple entered into an agreement with Microsoft to make IE the default browser on new Mac OS installations, a further blow to Netscape’s prestige.[citation needed] The Communicator suite was made up of Netscape Navigator, Netscape Mail & Newsgroups, Netscape Address Book and Netscape Composer (an HTML editor).

In January 1998, Netscape Communications Corporation announced that all future versions of its software would be available free of charge and developed by an open source community, Mozilla. Netscape Communicator 5.0 was announced (codenamed “Gromit”). However, its release was greatly delayed, and meanwhile there were newer versions of Internet Explorer, starting with version 4. These had more features than the old Netscape version, including better support of HTML 4, CSSDOM, and ECMAScript; eventually, the more advanced Internet Explorer 5.0 became the market leader.

In October 1998, Netscape Communicator 4.5 was released. It featured various functionality improvements, especially in the Mail and Newsgroups component, but did not update the browser core, whose functionality was essentially identical to that of version 4.08. One month later, Netscape Communications Corporation was bought by AOL. In November, work on Netscape 5.0 was canceled in favor of developing a completely new program from scratch.

Mozilla-based releases

Netscape 6 (versions 6.0–6.2.3)

Main article: Netscape 6

In 1998, an informal group called the Mozilla Organization was formed and largely funded by Netscape (the vast majority of programmers working on the code were paid by Netscape) to co-ordinate the development of Netscape 5 (codenamed “Gromit”), which would be based on the Communicator source code. However, the aging Communicator code proved difficult to work with and the decision was taken to scrap Netscape 5 and re-write the source code. The re-written source code was in the form of the Mozilla web browser, on which, with a few additions, Netscape 6 was based.

This decision meant that Netscape’s next major version was severely delayed. In the meantime, Netscape was taken over by AOL who, acting under pressure from the Web Standards Project, forced its new division to release Netscape 6.0 in 2000. The suite again consisted of Netscape Navigator and the other Communicator components, with the addition of a built-in AOL Instant Messenger client, Netscape Instant Messenger. However, it was clear that Netscape 6 was not yet ready for release and it flopped badly. It was based on Mozilla 0.6, which was not ready to be used by the general public yet due to many serious bugs that would cause it to crash often or render web pages slowly. Later versions of Netscape 6 were much improved(especially 6.2.x was regarded as a good release)[who?], but the browser still struggled to make an impact on a disappointed community.

Netscape 7 (versions 7.0–7.2)[

Main article: Netscape 7

Netscape 7.0 (based on Mozilla 1.0.1) was released in August 2002 as a direct continuation of Netscape 6 with very similar components. It picked up a few users, but was still very much a minority browser. It did, however, come with the popular Radio@Netscape Internet radio client. AOL had decided to deactivate Mozilla’s popup-blocker functionality in Netscape 7.0, which created an outrage in the community. AOL learned the lesson for Netscape 7.01 and allowed Netscape to reinstate the popup-blocker. Netscape also introduced a new AOL-free-version (without the usual AOL addons) of the browser suite. Netscape 7.1 (codenamed “Buffy” and based on Mozilla 1.4) was released in June 2003.

In 2003, AOL closed down its Netscape division and laid-off or reassigned all of Netscape’s employees. Mozilla.org continued, however, as the independent Mozilla Foundation, taking on many of Netscape’s ex-employees. AOL continued to develop Netscape in-house (with help from Sun’s Beijing development center[39]), but, due to there being no staff committed to it, improvements were minimal. One year later, in August 2004, the last version based on Mozilla was released: Netscape 7.2, based on Mozilla 1.7.2.

After an official poll posted on Netscape’s community support board in late 2006, speculation arose of the Netscape 7 series of suites being fully supported and updated by Netscape’s in-house development team.[46][47][48] This was not to be.

Mozilla Firefox-based releases[Netscape Browser (version 8.0–8.1.3)

Between 2005 and 2007, Netscape’s releases became known as Netscape Browser. AOL chose to base Netscape Browser on the relatively successful Mozilla Firefox, a re-written version of Mozilla produced by the Mozilla Foundation. This release is not a full Internet suite as before, but is solely a web browser. Other controversial decisions include the browser’s being made only for Microsoft Windows and its featuring both the Gecko rendering engine of previous releases and the Trident engine used in Internet Explorer. AOL’s acquisition of Netscape Communications in November 1998[49] made it less of a surprise when the company laid off the Netscape team and outsourced development to Mercurial Communications.[when?] Netscape Browser 8.1.3 was released on April 2, 2007, and included general bug fixes identified in versions 8.0–8.1.2[50][51]

Netscape Navigator (version 9.0)[

Netscape Navigator 9.0

Netscape Navigator 9‘s features were said to include newsfeed support and become more integrated with the Propeller Internet portal,[52] alongside more enhanced methods of discussion, submission and voting on web pages.[53] It also sees the browser return to multi-platform support across WindowsLinux and Mac OS X.[54] Like Netscape version 8.x, the new release was based upon the popular Mozilla Firefox (version 2.0), and supposedly had full support of all Firefox add-ons and plugins, some of which Netscape was already providing.[55] Also for the first time since 2004, the browser was produced in-house with its own programming staff.[56] A beta of the program was first released on June 5, 2007.[57] The final version was released on October 15, 2007.

End of development and support

AOL officially announced[10][11] that support for Netscape Navigator would end on March 1, 2008, and recommended that its users download either the Flock or Firefox browsers, both of which were based on the same technology.[58]

The decision met mixed reactions from communities, with many arguing that the termination of product support is significantly belated. Internet security site Security Watch stated that a trend of infrequent security updates for AOL’s Netscape caused the browser to become a “security liability”, specifically the 2005–2007 versions, Netscape Browser 8.[59] Asa Dotzler, one of Firefox’soriginal bug testers, greeted the news with “good riddance” in his blog post, but praised the various members of the Netscape team over the years for enabling the creation of Mozilla in 1998.[60] Others protested and petitioned AOL to continue providing vital security fixes to unknowing or loyal users of its software, as well as protection of a well-known brand.[61][62][63]

Mozilla Thunderbird-based releases

Netscape Messenger 9

Main article: Netscape Messenger 9

On June 11, 2007, Netscape announced Netscape Mercury, a standalone email and news client that was to accompany Navigator 9. Mercury was based on Mozilla Thunderbird.[64] The product was later renamed Netscape Messenger 9, and an alpha version was released. In December 2007, AOL announced it was canceling Netscape’s development of Messenger 9 as well as Navigator 9.

Product list

Initial product line

Netscape’s initial product line consisted of:

  • Netscape Navigator web browser for WindowsMacintoshOS/2Unix, and Linux
  • Netsite Communications web server, with a web-based configuration interface[65]
  • Netsite Commerce web server, simply the Communications server with SSL (https) added

  • Netscape Proxy Server

Later Netscape products

Netscape’s later products included:

  • Netscape Personal Edition (the browser along with PPP software and an account creation wizard to sign up with an ISP)
  • Netscape Communicator (a suite which included Navigator along with tools for mail, news, calendar, VoIP, and composing web pages, and was bundled with AOL Instant Messenger and RealAudio)
  • Netscape FastTrack and Enterprise web servers
  • Netscape Collabra Server, a NNTP news server acquired in a purchase of Collabra Software, Inc.
  • Netscape Directory Server, an LDAP server
  • Netscape Messaging Server, an IMAP and POP mail server
  • Netscape Certificate Server, for issuing SSL certificates
  • Netscape Calendar Server, for group scheduling

  • Netscape Compass Server, a search engine and spider
  • Netscape Application Server, for designing web applications
  • Netscape Publishing System, for running a commercial site with news articles and charging users per access

  • Netscape Xpert Servers

    • ECxpert – a server for EDI message exchange
    • SellerXpert – B to B Commerce Engine
    • BuyerXpert – eProcurement Engine

    • BillerXpert – Online Bill Paying Engine

    • TradingXpert – HTML EDI transaction frontend

    • CommerceXpert – Online Retail Store engine

  • Radio@Netscape and Radio@Netscape Plus


Main article: Propeller.com

Between June 2006 and September 2007, AOL operated Netscape’s website as social news website similar to Digg. The format did not do well as traffic dropped 55.1 percent between November 2006 and August 2007.[66] In September 2007, AOL reverted Netscape’s website to a traditional news portal, and rebranded the social news portal as “Propeller”, moving the site to the domain “propeller.com.” AOL shut down the Propeller website on October 1, 2010.[66]

Netscape Search Netscape operated a search engine, Netscape Search, which now redirects to AOL Search (which itself now merely serves Googlesearch results)[]. Another version of Netscape Search was incorporated into Propeller.

Other sites

Netscape also operates a number of country-specific Netscape portals, including Netscape Canada among others. The portal of Netscape Germany was shut down in June 2008.

The Netscape Blog was written by Netscape employees discussing the latest on Netscape products and services. Netscape NewsQuake (formally Netscape Reports) is Netscape’s news and opinion blog, including video clips and discussions. As of January 2012, no new posts have been made on either of these blogs since August 2008.

Netscape technologies

Netscape created the JavaScript web page scripting language. It also pioneered the development of push technology, which effectively allowed web sites to send regular updates of information (weather, stock updates, package tracking, etc.) directly to a user’s desktop (aka “webtop”); Netscape’s implementation of this was named Netcaster.[67] Unfortunately, businesses quickly recognized the use of push technology to deliver ads to users that annoyed them, so Netcaster was short-lived.

Netscape was notable for its cross-platform efforts. Its client software continued to be made available for Windows (3.19598NT), Macintosh, Linux, OS/2BeOS, and many versions of Unix including DECSun SolarisBSDIIRIXIBM AIX, and HP-UX. Its server software generally was only available for Unix and Windows NT, though some of its servers were made available on Linux, and a version of Netscape FastTrack Server was made available for Windows 95/98. Today, most of Netscape’s server offerings live on as the Sun Java System, formerly under the Sun ONE branding. Although Netscape Browser 8 was Windows only, multi-platform support exists in the Netscape Navigator 9 series of browsers.[33]

Current services

Netscape Internet Service[ Netscape ISP is a 56 kbit/s dial-up service offered at US$9.95 per month[68] (US$6.95 with 12-month commitment). The company serves webpages in a compressed format to increase effective speeds up to 1300 kbit/s (average 500 kbit/s). The Internet service provider is run by AOL under the Netscape brand. The low-cost ISP was officially launched on January 8, 2004.[69] Its main competitor is NetZero. Netscape ISP’s advertising is generally aimed at a younger demographic, e.g., college students, and people just out of school, as an affordable way to gain access to the Internet.


Netscape always drove lots of traffic from various links included in the browser menus to its web properties. Some say it was very late to leverage this traffic[70] for what would become the start of the major online portal wars.[71] When it did, Netcenter, the new name for its site entered the race with Yahoo!, Infoseek, and MSN, which Google would only join years later.

The original Netscape.com was discontinued in June 2006, replaced by the site that would eventually become Propeller.com. Two continuations of the original Netscape.com portal are available; Compuserve.com, the Web site of Compuserve, and ISP.Netscape.com, the web site for Netscape’s dial-up discount ISP service, continue to use the Netscape.com layout as it was before June 2006. Of the two, only the latter explicitly uses the Netscape branding.

Netscape.com is currently an AOL Netscape-branded mirror duplicate of the AOL.com portal with the URL, replacing the former social news website in September 2007. The social news site moved to the Propeller.com domain, where it stayed until ending operations in October 2010. It features facilities such as news, sports, horoscopes, dating, movies, music and more. The change has come to much criticism amongst many site users, because the site has effectively become an AOL clone, and simply re-directs to regional AOL portals in some areas across the globe. Netscape’s exclusive features, such as the Netscape Blog, Netscape NewsQuake, Netscape Navigator, My Netscape and Netscape Community pages, are less accessible from the AOL Netscape designed portal and in some countries not accessible at all without providing a full URL or completing an Internet search.[72] The new AOL Netscape site was originally previewed in August 2007 before moving the existing site in September 2007.[73]

Netscape.co.uk now redirects to AOL Search, with no Netscape branding at all.[74]


Main article: DMOZ

DMOZ (from directory.mozilla.org, its original domain name, also known as the Open Directory Project or ODP), was a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned[citation needed] by Netscape that was constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors.

Netscape Forum Center

Netscape also has a wide variety of community-based forums within Netscape Forum Center, including its browser‘s community support board. To post on the forums, users must possess an AOL Screenname account in which to sign in, referred to within the site as the Netscape Network. The same service is also available through Compuserve Forum Center.

See also


  1. Jump up^ “AOL meeting to address Netscape integration”. Cnet News. March 23, 1999. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  2. Jump up^ Swartz, Jon. “Company takes browser war to Netscape’s lawn.” San Francisco Chronicle. Thursday October 2, 1997. Retrieved on December 29, 2009
  3. Jump up^ Lawler, III, Edward E.; Worely, Christopher G. (2011). “Identity as a Guidepost to Strategy”. Management Reset: Organizing for Sustainable Effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118008447.
  4. Jump up^ Mook, Nate (July 10, 2006). “Firefox Usage Passes 15 Percent in US”. BetaNews. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
  5. Jump up^ “History of SSL at IBM.com”. Publib.boulder.ibm.com. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  6. Jump up to:a b “America Online Inc. Completes Acquisition of Netscape Communications Corp.”. Business Wire. March 17, 1999. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
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  8. Jump up^ “Mozilla Stomps Ahead Under AOL”. Wired.com. Archived from the original on June 3, 2014. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  9. Jump up^ “Press Release”. Web.archive.org. 2001-12-13. Archived from the original on 2001-12-13. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
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  11. Jump up to:a b c Tom Drapeau (January 28, 2008). “Netscape Browser Support extended to March 1st”. Netscape Blog. Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  12. Jump up^ “FORM 10-K”. Sec.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
  13. Jump up^ Netscape ISP home page of 2014 with link to Netscape ISP Terms of Service update of 15 September 2014.
  14. Jump up^ Hawn, Mathew (May 1995). (subscription required)%5b%5bCategory:Pages containing links to subscription-only content%5d%5d “Netscape Navigator. (Netscape Communications World Wide Web browser) (Software Review)(Evaluation)” Check |url= value (help)Macworld. Retrieved May 17, 2011. Netscape Communications wants you to forget all the highway metaphors you’ve ever heard about the Internet. Instead, think about an encyclopedia—one with unlimited, graphically rich pages, connections to E-mail and files, and access to Internet newsgroups and online shopping.
  15. Jump up^ “AOL will pull the plug on Netscape’s tech support”. Los Angeles Times. December 29, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  16. Jump up to:a b c Adam Lashinsky (July 25, 2005). “Remembering Netscape: The Birth Of The Web”. Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  17. Jump up to:a b c Zook, Matthew A. (2005). The Geography of the Internet Industry: Venture Capital, Dot-Coms, and Local Knowledge. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 0-631-23331-8.
  18. Jump up to:a b “OPSWARE INC. / On the record: Marc Andreessen”. SFGate. December 7, 2003. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  19. Jump up^ “Cisco tablet not an iPad knock-off: Chambers”. Network World. June 30, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Mosaic’s Name Change”. The San Francisco Chronicle. November 15, 1994. p. B3.
  21. Jump up^ Clark, Jim; Owen Edwards (1999). Netscape Time: The Making of the Billion-Dollar Start-Up That Took on Microsoft. St. Martin’s Press. pp. 160–170 [167]. ISBN 978-0312199340.
  22. Jump up^ Marc Andreessen Revealed (Bloomberg Game Changers)
  23. Jump up^ [1]
  24. Jump up^ David Sheff. “Going Public as Netscape Did, before making a dime in profits”Wired 8.08. Lycos. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  25. Jump up^ “Electric cars: A Netscape Moment?”. Economist.com. February 4, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  26. Jump up^ “Is commercial spaceflight’s “Netscape moment” near?”. The Space Review. July 30, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  27. Jump up^ “Programmer’s Bookshelf”. Dr. Dobb’s Journal. December 1, 1999. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  28. Jump up^ “Netscape’s Marc Andreessen”Time Magazine. February 19, 1996. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  29. Jump up^ “Government alleges illegal campaign by Microsoft”. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006. Retrieved July 14,2006.
  30. Jump up^ “Memoirs from the Browser Wars”. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  31. Jump up^ Alex Lash. “Netscape cuts prices on retail products”. C-Net. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  32. Jump up^ Alan T. Saracevic (October 23, 2005). “Silicon Valley: It’s where brains meet bucks”San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  33. Jump up to:a b “Microsoft Subpoenas Bad Attitude”Wired. September 1, 1998. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  34. Jump up^ “AOL buys Netscape for $4.2 billion”.
  35. Jump up^ Yoffie, David B. (April 1999). “Building a Company on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape”. California Management Review.
  36. Jump up^ “netscape and aol.”.
  37. Jump up^ “Sun-Netscape Alliance Announces New iPlanet(TM) Brand and Marketing Campaign”. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
  38. Jump up^ “PCMag”. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
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  41. Jump up^ Oracle Web Tier”. Oracle. Retrieved July 7, 2012
  42. Jump up^ UFAQ. org – “Announcing Netscape 9” by Jay GarciaRetrieved on February 5, 2007
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  45. Jump up^ “Netscape Navigator Gold 3.0 Now Available, Adding Momentum to Netscape Client Software”.
  46. Jump up^ Netscape Community Announcement – Netscape 7.2Retrieved on February 8, 2007
  47. Jump up^ Netscape Community poll – Should Netscape continue to update 7.2? Retrieved on February 8, 2007
  48. Jump up^ Mozillazine – Netscape 9 announced Retrieved on February 8, 2007
  49. Jump up^ PC World Article Nov 24, 1998 12am
  50. Jump up^ Netscape Community – Netscape 8.1.3 Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on February 8, 2007
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  52. Jump up^ Netscape 9.0 confirmed on Netscape’s community support board Archived March 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on January 24, 2007
  53. Jump up^ Netscape 9 – February 20 Announcement ArchivedJanuary 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on February 20, 2007
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  56. Jump up^ Netscape announces cross-platform Netscape 9 to be developed in-house – Mozillazine Retrieved on February 5, 2007
  57. Jump up^ Netscape 9.0b1 released Archived January 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on June 5, 2007
  58. Jump up^ “AOL to End Support for Netscape Browser”Washington Post. PC World. December 28, 2007. Retrieved September 29,2015.
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  74. Jump up^ “Netscape.co.uk”.

Further reading

  • Jim ClarkNetscape Time: The Making of the Billion-Dollar Start-Up That Took On Microsoft, St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
  • Michael E. Cusumano and David B. Yoffie, Competing On Internet Time: Lessons From Netscape And Its Battle With Microsoft, The Free Press, 1998, 2000.

  • Fortune Magazine, “Remembering Netscape: The Birth Of The Web”, July 25, 2005.

External links

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Moon Rotates Lunar Month




Does the Moon rotate? Are there other moons that always keep one face toward their planet? (Intermediate)

I noticed that out moon doesn’t rotate as it orbits our earth. Is our moon the only moon in our solar system that doesn’t rotate?

Be a little careful . . . the Moon does rotate. If you stood on the Moon, the stars would rise and set, just like they do on Earth, except that a lunar day is a month long, the same as the Moon’s orbital period. The Moon rotates at just the right speed so that it always keeps one face pointed toward the Earth, which seems like a pretty big coincidence, doesn’t it?

Your question is very interesting because the answer is that, no, the Moon is not unique. Almost all moons in the Solar System keep one face pointed toward their planet. (The only exception we know of is Hyperion, a moon of Saturn.) This tells us it’s probably not a coincidence, that there is probably a reason for this to happen, a physical process that happens to most moons to slow their rotation.

That process is called tidal friction. You probably know that the Moon’s gravity affects the Earth’s oceans. Well, the Earth’s gravity also affects the Moon. It distorts the Moon’s shape slightly, squashing it out so that it is elongated along a line that points toward the Earth. We say that the Earth raises “tidal bulges” on the Moon.

The Earth’s gravity pulls on the closest tidal bulge, trying to keep it aligned with Earth. As the Moon turns, feeling the Earth’s gravity, this creates friction within the Moon, slowing the Moon’s rotation down until its rotation matches its orbital period exactly, a state we call tidal synchronization. In this state, the Moon’s tidal bulge is always aligned with Earth, which means that the Moon always keeps one face toward Earth.

Other planets raise tides on their moons, too, so almost all the moons in the Solar System are tidally synchronized. There’s even one planet that is sychronized to its moon! Charon, Pluto’s moon, is so large and so close to Pluto that the planet and moon are both locked into the same rotational rate. The Moon slows the Earth’s rotation, too, but at a very slow rate, increasing the length of the day by a couple of milliseconds each century.

You might be wondering what’s up with Hyperion. Gravitational interaction with other moons of Saturn cause Hyperion to tumble chaotically, so Saturn doesn’t even get a chance at tidal synchronization before Hyperion’s rotational state is changed by another moon. There may be other small moons that behave in this manner, as well, but it is difficult to measure the rotational periods of small moons around distant planets, so we don’t know of any yet.

This page was last updated on July 18, 2015.

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Strange Naval Space


Click HERE to link to Naval Space Command’s WWW Home Page


     The naval services’ growing dependence on space prompted the Secretary of the Navy to establish a new command that would consolidate space activities and organizations that operate and maintain naval space systems.  This new organization – the Naval Space Command – was commissioned on October 1, 1983.  It was a decisive move to bring together several activities under a single command to strengthen operational control, provide a central focal point for naval space matters, and more effectively guide future operational uses of space.


     Naval Space Command uses the medium of space and its potential to provide essential information and capabilities to ashore and afloat naval forces by:

  • Operating surveillance, navigation, communication, environmental, and information systems;

  • Advocating naval warfighting requirements in the joint arena; and

  • Advising, supporting, and assisting naval services through training and by developing space plans, programs, budgets, policies, concepts and doctrine.

      As an Echelon 2 command,Naval Space Command reports directly to the Director of Space and Electronic Warfare (N-6) and the Director of Naval Warfare (N-7).  Our tasking to support Marine Corps forces comes through the staff of the Commandant of the Marine Corps.  In addition, Fleet commanders-in-chief are authorized a direct line of communication with the command for requesting specific operational support.

     Naval Space Command also serves as the naval service component of the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM), established in 1985.  Component responsibilities include operating assigned space systems to provide surveillance and warning, as well as providing spacecraft telemetry and on-orbit engineering support.

     In addition, Naval Space Command provides facilities for and staffs a command center 24 hours a day to serve as the Alternate Space Control Center for U.S. Space Command’s primary center located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station, Colorado.

     The Alternate Space Control Center missions include operational direction of the entire global Space Surveillance Network for Commander-in-Chief Space (CINCSPACE).  The Center also detects, tracks, identifies, and catalogs all manmade objects in space and provides ephemerides on these objects to about 1,000 customers; and monitors the space environment and informs owners and operators of U.S. and allied space systems of potential threat to their assets by continuous liaison with the systems’ operations centers.

     Finally, Naval Space Command provides administrative oversight for two Echelon 3 operational Navy activities:  the Naval Satellite Operations Center and the Fleet Surveillance Support Command.


     The heartbeat of Naval Space Command revolves around providing space support to day-to-day operations of the Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces worldwide, whether for routine deployments, exercises, or actions in response to a crisis situation.  This space support to terrestrial forces can be categorized across a broad spectrum of activities that encompass communications, surveillance and indication and warning, intelligence, navigation, and remote sensing.


     Naval Space Command is the system operational manager for Navy space-based communications systems, including the Fleet Satellite Communications System, Leased Satellite, and UHF Follow-On.

     Fleet Satellite provides worldwide ultra-high-frequency communications between naval aircraft, ships, submarines, ground stations, the U.S. Strategic Command, and national command authorities.  The Fleet Satellite system, first operational in 1978, features spacecraft placed geostationary orbits around the equator.  A satellite in this type of orbit matches the Earth’s rotation in order to remain in roughly the same position over a specific area of the globe.  A minimum of four satellites spaced equidistant around the globe provides worldwide coverage.

     Leased Satellite spacecraft, which also provides Ultra-High Frequency communications, were first launched in 1984 to augment the Fleet Satellite system. This Ultra-High Frequency constellation also features three satellites deployed in roughly the same positions as the Fleet Satellite spacecraft.

     To further enhance satellite communications capabilities for the future, Naval Space Command manages a joint-service project that has placed extremely-high-frequency communications test modules into orbit.  Carried into space aboard Fleet Satellite spacecraft in 1987 and 1989, these experimental Fleet Satellite Extremely-High Frequency Packages are providing our naval forces with limited operational capability at Extremely-High Frequency and are enabling them to test new Extremely-High Frequency terminals being developed for a future military satellite system intended to provide a more survivable, jam-resistant communications capability.

      Naval Space Command also manages a new generation of  Ultra-High Frequency communications satellites now being launched to replace Fleet Satellite and Leased Satellite systems, which are nearing the end of their operational lives.  The Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On spacecraft are designed for a 14-year lifetime and will be compatible with ground-based and sea-based communications terminals already in service.  The new satellites will use the same frequency spectrum as the current constellation of  Ultra-High Frequency satellites, but will have additional transmitters to provide an increase in communications capacity.

     Midway through the program, Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On incorporates an Extremely-High Frequency communications payload.  The Extremely-High Frequency package will provide enhanced anti-jam telemetry, command, broadcast, and Fleet interconnectivity communications.  This payload will be on all subsequent Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On satellites.

     Each spacecraft features solid-state Ultra-High Frequency amplifiers and provides multiple Ultra-High Frequency channels.  These frequencies consist of narrow-band channels, relay channels, and broadcast channels.  Newer satellites also have Extremely-High Frequency capabilities.

     The Extremely-High Frequency packages on the Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On-4 and subsequent spacecraft in the series constitute an additional 11 channels distributed between an Earth coverage beam and a steerable 5-degree spot beam.

     Additionally, Naval Space Command coordinates Navy use of and requirements for the Defense Satellite Communications System.  This satellite system includes four spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit that provides worldwide communications at super-high-frequency for U.S. and allied forces.


     A constant and vigilant surveillance of potentially hostile military threats is critical in preserving the operational effectiveness of our armed forces around the world.  Naval Space Command manages two distinct surveillance efforts in support of Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces – tracking satellites in orbit and monitoring over-the-horizon threats from sea and air forces.

     First, Naval Space Command operates a surveillance network of nine field stations located across the southern U.S.  Three transmitter sites in the network are located at Jordan Lake, Alabama; Lake Kickapoo, Texas; and Gila River, Arizona.  Six receiver sites are located at Tattnal, Georgia; Hawkinsville, Georgia; Silver Lake, Mississippi; Red River, Arkansas; Elephant Butte, New Mexico and San Diego, California.  These surveillance stations produce a “fence” of electromagnetic energy that can detect objects to an effective range of 15,000 nautical miles.

     Over one million satellite detections, or observations are collected by this surveillance network each month.  Data gathered is transmitted to a computer center at Naval Space Command headquarters in Dahlgren, Virginia, where it is used to constantly update a data base of spacecraft orbital elements.  This information is reported to Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces to alert them when particular satellites of interest are overhead.  The command also maintain a catalog of all Earth-orbiting satellites and supports USSPACECOM as part of the nation’s worldwide Space Surveillance Network.

     A second surveillance effort, devoted to over-the-horizon threats, is carried out by the Fleet Surveillance Support Command.  Established in 1987, this organization’s mission is to operate and maintain the Navy’s Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar systems.  It is a high-frequency, land-based radar that provides wide-area oceanic surface and air surveillance data to support the Fleet.  The systems can detect and track ships and aircraft in fixed sectors with ranges in excess of 1,000 nautical miles.  Detachments of the command directly support Fleet commanders-in-chief who exercise operational control of the deployed systems.


     Naval Space Command provides space intelligence support to deployed naval forces through an initiative dubbed “Chambered Round.”  The Chambered Round product is a message that provides deployed naval forces with tactical assessments of hostile space capabilities and specific reactions to their operations.  This knowledge assists Fleet and Fleet Marine Force tactical units in reducing their vulnerability to space reconnaissance efforts.

     Remote Sensing

     Naval Space Command provides a multi-spectral imagery from LANDSAT and SPOT Earth resources spacecraft to assist naval forces with exercise and strike planning, provide updated maps and charts, and enhance intelligence and surveillance capabilities.  The command has provided multi-spectral imagery products to U.S. warfighters in support of recent operations in Southwest Asia, Somalia, Haiti, Yugoslavia, and Korea.

Current as of  June 1995

Basic Information Storage Minds


Stages of Memory Encoding Storage and Retrieval

We deny being extraterrestrial but we call our higher selves as super conscious Nordic connections to those of our ancient ancestors.

We look at how our cosmic conscious minds do interact with others and for what reasons.

Wisdom of how we all decide what is true and if we are Nordic Extraterrestrials working with those who have contracts, then we must all subscibe to the fact that we answer to those above who desire to extend continous operating space programs to the closest stars.


Some are allowed to contact those who we share as the ones we share as the blues and those who contact us through what is considered impossible means. Direct contact which is helped with our own radio waves and secret think tanks here on earth.

S0me are always inside this intelligence group.

Various programs are included and called various names that many of us have not heard about.

Many want to now about space projects and programs and numbers and code names purposely are set up to maintain anonymity and secret control and who is knowledegable of what.


For instanec TRW a contractor was once set up with the normal classified document order. Some of us share knowledge now for others to deny or accept.


We research our own world for clues to our own ex istence as we go up the food chain or down the rabbit hole.

Saul McLeod published 2013

“Memory is the process of maintaining information over time.” (Matlin, 2005)

“Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present’ (Sternberg, 1999).


Memory is the term given to the structures and processesinvolved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information.


Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past we cannot operate in the present or think about the future. We would not be able to remember what we did yesterday, what we have done today or what we plan to do tomorrow.  Without memory we could not learn anything.

Memory is involved in processing vast amounts of information. This information takes many different forms, e.g. images, sounds or meaning.

For psychologists the term memory covers three important aspects of information processing:

stages of memory

1. Memory Encoding


When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.  Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another.  For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. semantic processing).

There are three main ways in which information can be encoded (changed):

1. Visual (picture)

2. Acoustic (sound)

3. Semantic (meaning)

For example, how do you remember a telephone number you have looked up in the phone book?  If you can see it then you are using visual coding, but if you are repeating it to yourself you are using acoustic coding (by sound).

Evidence suggests that this is the principle coding system in short term memory (STM) is acoustic coding.  When a person is presented with a list of numbers and letters, they will try to hold them in STM by rehearsing them (verbally).  Rehearsal is a verbal process regardless of whether the list of items is presented acoustically (someone reads them out), or visually (on a sheet of paper).

The principle encoding system in long term memory (LTM) appears to be semantic coding (by meaning).  However, information in LTM can also be coded both visually and acoustically.

2. Memory Storage

This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.e. where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts for (duration), how much can be stored at any time (capacity) and what kind of information is held.  The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it.  There has been a significant amount of research regarding the differences between Short Term Memory (STM ) and Long Term Memory(LTM).

Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory.  Miller (1956) put this idea forward and he called it the magic number 7.  He though that short-term memory capacity was 7 (plus or minus 2) items because it only had a certain number of “slots” in which items could be stored.

However, Miller didn’t specify the amount of information that can be held in each slot.  Indeed, if we can “chunk” information together we can store a lot more information in our short-term memory.  In contrast the capacity of LTM is thought to be unlimited.

Information can only be stored for a brief duration in STM (0-30 seconds), but LTM can last a lifetime.

3. Memory Retrieval

This refers to getting information out storage.  If we can’t remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it.  When we are asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between STM and LTM become very clear.

STM is stored and retrieved sequentially.  For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information.

LTM is stored and retrieved by association.  This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it.

Organizing information can help aid retrieval.  You can organize information in sequences (such as alphabetically, by size or by time).  Imagine a patient being discharged from hospital whose treatment involved taking various pills at various times, changing their dressing and doing exercises.  If the doctor gives these instructions in the order which they must be carried out throughout the day (i.e. in sequence of time), this will help the patient remember them.

Criticisms of Memory Experiments

A large part of the research on memory is based on experiments conducted in laboratories.  Those who take part in the experiments – the participants – are asked to perform tasks such as recalling lists of words and numbers.  Both the setting – the laboratory – and the tasks are a long way from everyday life.  In many cases, the setting is artificial and the tasks fairly meaningless.  Does this matter?

Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings.  An experiment has high ecological validity if its findings can be generalized, that is applied or extended, to settings outside the laboratory.

It is often assumed that if an experiment is realistic or true-to-life, then there is a greater likelihood that its findings can be generalized.  If it is not realistic (if the laboratory setting and the tasks are artificial) then there is less likelihood that the findings can be generalized.  In this case, the experiment will have low ecological validity.

Many experiments designed to investigate memory have been criticized for having low ecological validity.  First, the laboratory is an artificial situation.  People are removed from their normal social settings and asked to take part in a psychological experiment.  They are directed by an ‘experimenter’ and may be placed in the company of complete strangers.  For many people, this is a brand new experience, far removed from their everyday lives.  Will this setting affect their actions, will they behave normally?

Often, the tasks participants are asked to perform can appear artificial and meaningless.  Few, if any, people would attempt to memorize and recall a list of unconnected words in their daily lives.  And it is not clear how tasks such as this relate to the use of memory in everyday life.  The artificiality of many experiments has led some researchers to question whether their findings can be generalized to real life.  As a result, many memory experiments have been criticized for having low ecological validity.


Matlin, M. W. (2005). Cognition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63 (2): 81–97.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Cognitive psychology (2 nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Stages of memory – encoding storage and retrieval. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html