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Moon Rotates Lunar Month



Does the Moon rotate? Are there other moons that always keep one face toward their planet? (Intermediate)

I noticed that out moon doesn’t rotate as it orbits our earth. Is our moon the only moon in our solar system that doesn’t rotate?

Be a little careful . . . the Moon does rotate. If you stood on the Moon, the stars would rise and set, just like they do on Earth, except that a lunar day is a month long, the same as the Moon’s orbital period. The Moon rotates at just the right speed so that it always keeps one face pointed toward the Earth, which seems like a pretty big coincidence, doesn’t it?

Your question is very interesting because the answer is that, no, the Moon is not unique. Almost all moons in the Solar System keep one face pointed toward their planet. (The only exception we know of is Hyperion, a moon of Saturn.) This tells us it’s probably not a coincidence, that there is probably a reason for this to happen, a physical process that happens to most moons to slow their rotation.

That process is called tidal friction. You probably know that the Moon’s gravity affects the Earth’s oceans. Well, the Earth’s gravity also affects the Moon. It distorts the Moon’s shape slightly, squashing it out so that it is elongated along a line that points toward the Earth. We say that the Earth raises “tidal bulges” on the Moon.

The Earth’s gravity pulls on the closest tidal bulge, trying to keep it aligned with Earth. As the Moon turns, feeling the Earth’s gravity, this creates friction within the Moon, slowing the Moon’s rotation down until its rotation matches its orbital period exactly, a state we call tidal synchronization. In this state, the Moon’s tidal bulge is always aligned with Earth, which means that the Moon always keeps one face toward Earth.

Other planets raise tides on their moons, too, so almost all the moons in the Solar System are tidally synchronized. There’s even one planet that is sychronized to its moon! Charon, Pluto’s moon, is so large and so close to Pluto that the planet and moon are both locked into the same rotational rate. The Moon slows the Earth’s rotation, too, but at a very slow rate, increasing the length of the day by a couple of milliseconds each century.

You might be wondering what’s up with Hyperion. Gravitational interaction with other moons of Saturn cause Hyperion to tumble chaotically, so Saturn doesn’t even get a chance at tidal synchronization before Hyperion’s rotational state is changed by another moon. There may be other small moons that behave in this manner, as well, but it is difficult to measure the rotational periods of small moons around distant planets, so we don’t know of any yet.

This page was last updated on July 18, 2015.

Britt Scharringhausen

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Strange Naval Space


Click HERE to link to Naval Space Command’s WWW Home Page


     The naval services’ growing dependence on space prompted the Secretary of the Navy to establish a new command that would consolidate space activities and organizations that operate and maintain naval space systems.  This new organization – the Naval Space Command – was commissioned on October 1, 1983.  It was a decisive move to bring together several activities under a single command to strengthen operational control, provide a central focal point for naval space matters, and more effectively guide future operational uses of space.


     Naval Space Command uses the medium of space and its potential to provide essential information and capabilities to ashore and afloat naval forces by:

  • Operating surveillance, navigation, communication, environmental, and information systems;

  • Advocating naval warfighting requirements in the joint arena; and

  • Advising, supporting, and assisting naval services through training and by developing space plans, programs, budgets, policies, concepts and doctrine.

      As an Echelon 2 command,Naval Space Command reports directly to the Director of Space and Electronic Warfare (N-6) and the Director of Naval Warfare (N-7).  Our tasking to support Marine Corps forces comes through the staff of the Commandant of the Marine Corps.  In addition, Fleet commanders-in-chief are authorized a direct line of communication with the command for requesting specific operational support.

     Naval Space Command also serves as the naval service component of the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM), established in 1985.  Component responsibilities include operating assigned space systems to provide surveillance and warning, as well as providing spacecraft telemetry and on-orbit engineering support.

     In addition, Naval Space Command provides facilities for and staffs a command center 24 hours a day to serve as the Alternate Space Control Center for U.S. Space Command’s primary center located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station, Colorado.

     The Alternate Space Control Center missions include operational direction of the entire global Space Surveillance Network for Commander-in-Chief Space (CINCSPACE).  The Center also detects, tracks, identifies, and catalogs all manmade objects in space and provides ephemerides on these objects to about 1,000 customers; and monitors the space environment and informs owners and operators of U.S. and allied space systems of potential threat to their assets by continuous liaison with the systems’ operations centers.

     Finally, Naval Space Command provides administrative oversight for two Echelon 3 operational Navy activities:  the Naval Satellite Operations Center and the Fleet Surveillance Support Command.


     The heartbeat of Naval Space Command revolves around providing space support to day-to-day operations of the Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces worldwide, whether for routine deployments, exercises, or actions in response to a crisis situation.  This space support to terrestrial forces can be categorized across a broad spectrum of activities that encompass communications, surveillance and indication and warning, intelligence, navigation, and remote sensing.


     Naval Space Command is the system operational manager for Navy space-based communications systems, including the Fleet Satellite Communications System, Leased Satellite, and UHF Follow-On.

     Fleet Satellite provides worldwide ultra-high-frequency communications between naval aircraft, ships, submarines, ground stations, the U.S. Strategic Command, and national command authorities.  The Fleet Satellite system, first operational in 1978, features spacecraft placed geostationary orbits around the equator.  A satellite in this type of orbit matches the Earth’s rotation in order to remain in roughly the same position over a specific area of the globe.  A minimum of four satellites spaced equidistant around the globe provides worldwide coverage.

     Leased Satellite spacecraft, which also provides Ultra-High Frequency communications, were first launched in 1984 to augment the Fleet Satellite system. This Ultra-High Frequency constellation also features three satellites deployed in roughly the same positions as the Fleet Satellite spacecraft.

     To further enhance satellite communications capabilities for the future, Naval Space Command manages a joint-service project that has placed extremely-high-frequency communications test modules into orbit.  Carried into space aboard Fleet Satellite spacecraft in 1987 and 1989, these experimental Fleet Satellite Extremely-High Frequency Packages are providing our naval forces with limited operational capability at Extremely-High Frequency and are enabling them to test new Extremely-High Frequency terminals being developed for a future military satellite system intended to provide a more survivable, jam-resistant communications capability.

      Naval Space Command also manages a new generation of  Ultra-High Frequency communications satellites now being launched to replace Fleet Satellite and Leased Satellite systems, which are nearing the end of their operational lives.  The Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On spacecraft are designed for a 14-year lifetime and will be compatible with ground-based and sea-based communications terminals already in service.  The new satellites will use the same frequency spectrum as the current constellation of  Ultra-High Frequency satellites, but will have additional transmitters to provide an increase in communications capacity.

     Midway through the program, Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On incorporates an Extremely-High Frequency communications payload.  The Extremely-High Frequency package will provide enhanced anti-jam telemetry, command, broadcast, and Fleet interconnectivity communications.  This payload will be on all subsequent Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On satellites.

     Each spacecraft features solid-state Ultra-High Frequency amplifiers and provides multiple Ultra-High Frequency channels.  These frequencies consist of narrow-band channels, relay channels, and broadcast channels.  Newer satellites also have Extremely-High Frequency capabilities.

     The Extremely-High Frequency packages on the Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On-4 and subsequent spacecraft in the series constitute an additional 11 channels distributed between an Earth coverage beam and a steerable 5-degree spot beam.

     Additionally, Naval Space Command coordinates Navy use of and requirements for the Defense Satellite Communications System.  This satellite system includes four spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit that provides worldwide communications at super-high-frequency for U.S. and allied forces.


     A constant and vigilant surveillance of potentially hostile military threats is critical in preserving the operational effectiveness of our armed forces around the world.  Naval Space Command manages two distinct surveillance efforts in support of Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces – tracking satellites in orbit and monitoring over-the-horizon threats from sea and air forces.

     First, Naval Space Command operates a surveillance network of nine field stations located across the southern U.S.  Three transmitter sites in the network are located at Jordan Lake, Alabama; Lake Kickapoo, Texas; and Gila River, Arizona.  Six receiver sites are located at Tattnal, Georgia; Hawkinsville, Georgia; Silver Lake, Mississippi; Red River, Arkansas; Elephant Butte, New Mexico and San Diego, California.  These surveillance stations produce a “fence” of electromagnetic energy that can detect objects to an effective range of 15,000 nautical miles.

     Over one million satellite detections, or observations are collected by this surveillance network each month.  Data gathered is transmitted to a computer center at Naval Space Command headquarters in Dahlgren, Virginia, where it is used to constantly update a data base of spacecraft orbital elements.  This information is reported to Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces to alert them when particular satellites of interest are overhead.  The command also maintain a catalog of all Earth-orbiting satellites and supports USSPACECOM as part of the nation’s worldwide Space Surveillance Network.

     A second surveillance effort, devoted to over-the-horizon threats, is carried out by the Fleet Surveillance Support Command.  Established in 1987, this organization’s mission is to operate and maintain the Navy’s Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar systems.  It is a high-frequency, land-based radar that provides wide-area oceanic surface and air surveillance data to support the Fleet.  The systems can detect and track ships and aircraft in fixed sectors with ranges in excess of 1,000 nautical miles.  Detachments of the command directly support Fleet commanders-in-chief who exercise operational control of the deployed systems.


     Naval Space Command provides space intelligence support to deployed naval forces through an initiative dubbed “Chambered Round.”  The Chambered Round product is a message that provides deployed naval forces with tactical assessments of hostile space capabilities and specific reactions to their operations.  This knowledge assists Fleet and Fleet Marine Force tactical units in reducing their vulnerability to space reconnaissance efforts.

     Remote Sensing

     Naval Space Command provides a multi-spectral imagery from LANDSAT and SPOT Earth resources spacecraft to assist naval forces with exercise and strike planning, provide updated maps and charts, and enhance intelligence and surveillance capabilities.  The command has provided multi-spectral imagery products to U.S. warfighters in support of recent operations in Southwest Asia, Somalia, Haiti, Yugoslavia, and Korea.

Current as of  June 1995

Basic Information Storage Minds

Stages of Memory Encoding Storage and Retrieval

We deny being extraterrestrial but we call our higher selves as super conscious Nordic connections to those of our ancient ancestors.

We look at how our cosmic conscious minds do interact with others and for what reasons.

Wisdom of how we all decide what is true and if we are Nordic Extraterrestrials working with those who have contracts, then we must all subscibe to the fact that we answer to those above who desire to extend continous operating space programs to the closest stars.


Some are allowed to contact those who we share as the ones we share as the blues and those who contact us through what is considered impossible means. Direct contact which is helped with our own radio waves and secret think tanks here on earth.

S0me are always inside this intelligence group.

Various programs are included and called various names that many of us have not heard about.

Many want to now about space projects and programs and numbers and code names purposely are set up to maintain anonymity and secret control and who is knowledegable of what.


For instanec TRW a contractor was once set up with the normal classified document order. Some of us share knowledge now for others to deny or accept.


We research our own world for clues to our own ex istence as we go up the food chain or down the rabbit hole.

Saul McLeod published 2013

“Memory is the process of maintaining information over time.” (Matlin, 2005)

“Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present’ (Sternberg, 1999).


Memory is the term given to the structures and processesinvolved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information.


Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past we cannot operate in the present or think about the future. We would not be able to remember what we did yesterday, what we have done today or what we plan to do tomorrow.  Without memory we could not learn anything.

Memory is involved in processing vast amounts of information. This information takes many different forms, e.g. images, sounds or meaning.

For psychologists the term memory covers three important aspects of information processing:

stages of memory

1. Memory Encoding


When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.  Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another.  For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. semantic processing).

There are three main ways in which information can be encoded (changed):

1. Visual (picture)

2. Acoustic (sound)

3. Semantic (meaning)

For example, how do you remember a telephone number you have looked up in the phone book?  If you can see it then you are using visual coding, but if you are repeating it to yourself you are using acoustic coding (by sound).

Evidence suggests that this is the principle coding system in short term memory (STM) is acoustic coding.  When a person is presented with a list of numbers and letters, they will try to hold them in STM by rehearsing them (verbally).  Rehearsal is a verbal process regardless of whether the list of items is presented acoustically (someone reads them out), or visually (on a sheet of paper).

The principle encoding system in long term memory (LTM) appears to be semantic coding (by meaning).  However, information in LTM can also be coded both visually and acoustically.

2. Memory Storage

This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.e. where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts for (duration), how much can be stored at any time (capacity) and what kind of information is held.  The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it.  There has been a significant amount of research regarding the differences between Short Term Memory (STM ) and Long Term Memory(LTM).

Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory.  Miller (1956) put this idea forward and he called it the magic number 7.  He though that short-term memory capacity was 7 (plus or minus 2) items because it only had a certain number of “slots” in which items could be stored.

However, Miller didn’t specify the amount of information that can be held in each slot.  Indeed, if we can “chunk” information together we can store a lot more information in our short-term memory.  In contrast the capacity of LTM is thought to be unlimited.

Information can only be stored for a brief duration in STM (0-30 seconds), but LTM can last a lifetime.

3. Memory Retrieval

This refers to getting information out storage.  If we can’t remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it.  When we are asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between STM and LTM become very clear.

STM is stored and retrieved sequentially.  For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information.

LTM is stored and retrieved by association.  This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it.

Organizing information can help aid retrieval.  You can organize information in sequences (such as alphabetically, by size or by time).  Imagine a patient being discharged from hospital whose treatment involved taking various pills at various times, changing their dressing and doing exercises.  If the doctor gives these instructions in the order which they must be carried out throughout the day (i.e. in sequence of time), this will help the patient remember them.

Criticisms of Memory Experiments

A large part of the research on memory is based on experiments conducted in laboratories.  Those who take part in the experiments – the participants – are asked to perform tasks such as recalling lists of words and numbers.  Both the setting – the laboratory – and the tasks are a long way from everyday life.  In many cases, the setting is artificial and the tasks fairly meaningless.  Does this matter?

Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings.  An experiment has high ecological validity if its findings can be generalized, that is applied or extended, to settings outside the laboratory.

It is often assumed that if an experiment is realistic or true-to-life, then there is a greater likelihood that its findings can be generalized.  If it is not realistic (if the laboratory setting and the tasks are artificial) then there is less likelihood that the findings can be generalized.  In this case, the experiment will have low ecological validity.

Many experiments designed to investigate memory have been criticized for having low ecological validity.  First, the laboratory is an artificial situation.  People are removed from their normal social settings and asked to take part in a psychological experiment.  They are directed by an ‘experimenter’ and may be placed in the company of complete strangers.  For many people, this is a brand new experience, far removed from their everyday lives.  Will this setting affect their actions, will they behave normally?

Often, the tasks participants are asked to perform can appear artificial and meaningless.  Few, if any, people would attempt to memorize and recall a list of unconnected words in their daily lives.  And it is not clear how tasks such as this relate to the use of memory in everyday life.  The artificiality of many experiments has led some researchers to question whether their findings can be generalized to real life.  As a result, many memory experiments have been criticized for having low ecological validity.


Matlin, M. W. (2005). Cognition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63 (2): 81–97.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Cognitive psychology (2 nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Stages of memory – encoding storage and retrieval. Retrieved from

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