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ACO Association for Certification by Regions in USA

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Regions of the United States

There are dozens of ways that organizations split up the United States into specific regions. Sports teams do it one way, the government does it about ten different ways, and some Americans don’t even know what region they live in. In this article, we’re going to take a brief look at the nine regions of the United States as they are divided by the United States Census Bureau.

Pacific Region

The Pacific region is one of the nine regions as determined by the Census Bureau. Five states are part of this region: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. These are the only states that have any borders on the Pacfic Ocean. This region is considered to be a sub-region of the Western United States, but is divided from the Mountain States because of vast differences in climate and ideologies between the two sub-regions. Many students will travel to the Pacific Region due to the diversity and perceived “open-mindedness” of this region.

The Mountain States

The Mountain States are another region as determined by the Census Bureau. The name for this region comes from the proximity of the Rocky Mountain range to each of these states. In some cases, these states are further separated into the Northwest Mountain States (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming) and the Southwest United States (Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Utah). These states have higher elevations than anywhere in the United States. Several of the Mountain States have excellent schools that many international students consider attending.

The East North Central Region

The East North Central region contains Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Many people will refer to this area and its West North Central counterpart as the “Midwest” region of the United States. Historically, many of these states were part of the Northwest Territory. This region also borders on the Great Lakes, which makes the region a bit more temperate (it has four seasons, unlike other regions of the United States). This region is known for being one of the more inexpensive areas in the country to live, work, and/or study.

West North Central Region

The West North Central region consists of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The Mississippi River separates the West North Central region from its eastern counterpart. Many of the states in the West North Central region have rich farmland, and that has helped to develop the nickname “the Heartland.” The West North Central region is a popular location for students to live because of the low unemployment rates and abundance of affordable housing.

New England

New England is the northeastern corner of the United States; there are six states in this region (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut). New England was part of the original 13 colonies that became the United States after the Revolutionary War. The earliest English settlements were located in this region (around Boston, Massachusetts). This region is historically rich and has a number of excellent universities that you can choose from. Unfortunately, it is one of the more expensive areas of the United States to reside, but that should not discourage you from studying in the New England region.

Mid-Atlantic Region

The Mid-Atlantic region of the United States is located in the “middle” of what is referred to as the East Coast. There is some debate (depending on the source) as to what is included in this region, but traditionally, these states are Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Washington D.C., New York, Virginia, and West Virginia. The Mid Atlantic is considered to be the “stereotypical American” region due to its influence on culture, commerce, trade, industry, and innovation. This region is also incredibly diverse, which makes it an ideal place for an international student to consider.

South Atlantic Region

The South Atlantic Region consists of the following states: Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. It is one of the regions that is considered to be part of “the South.” This region has a warmer climate than its North Atlantic counterparts. The South Atlantic Region has a lot of places that are popular with international students, especially in the state of Florida, where many international students will consider studying.

East South Central States

The East South Central States, along with the South Atlantic and the West South Central States, are considered to be part of “the south.” These states include Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. This region is referred to as “Old Dixie” by several books. This region is known as being part of the core of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and all four of these states are very similar in topography and culture. There are several high-quality universities in the East South Central region that international students consider for their education.

West South Central States

The last region we will discuss is the West South Central region. Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas are the four states that make up this region. This region is incredibly diverse, especially in Texas, and many of the residents of this region are “traditional southerners.” Many of these people have independent spirits and much of the culture reflects that mindset. There are several excellent universities in this region that people from all over the world attend for both undergraduate and graduate programs.

As you can see, each of these regions is unique in terms of geography, history, culture, and education. This will be very important to understand when determining where in the United States you want to study. In this guide, we will do our best to give you an overview of what you can expect throughout the United States, instead of trying to focus on each region individually.

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Basic Information Storage Minds

https://www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html

Stages of Memory Encoding Storage and Retrieval

We deny being extraterrestrial but we call our higher selves as super conscious Nordic connections to those of our ancient ancestors.

We look at how our cosmic conscious minds do interact with others and for what reasons.

Wisdom of how we all decide what is true and if we are Nordic Extraterrestrials working with those who have contracts, then we must all subscibe to the fact that we answer to those above who desire to extend continous operating space programs to the closest stars.

 

Some are allowed to contact those who we share as the ones we share as the blues and those who contact us through what is considered impossible means. Direct contact which is helped with our own radio waves and secret think tanks here on earth.

S0me are always inside this intelligence group.

Various programs are included and called various names that many of us have not heard about.

Many want to now about space projects and programs and numbers and code names purposely are set up to maintain anonymity and secret control and who is knowledegable of what.

 

For instanec TRW a contractor was once set up with the normal classified document order. Some of us share knowledge now for others to deny or accept.

 

We research our own world for clues to our own ex istence as we go up the food chain or down the rabbit hole.

Saul McLeod published 2013


“Memory is the process of maintaining information over time.” (Matlin, 2005)

“Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present’ (Sternberg, 1999).

 

Memory is the term given to the structures and processesinvolved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information.

 

Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past we cannot operate in the present or think about the future. We would not be able to remember what we did yesterday, what we have done today or what we plan to do tomorrow.  Without memory we could not learn anything.

Memory is involved in processing vast amounts of information. This information takes many different forms, e.g. images, sounds or meaning.

For psychologists the term memory covers three important aspects of information processing:

stages of memory


1. Memory Encoding

 

When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.  Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another.  For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. semantic processing).

There are three main ways in which information can be encoded (changed):

1. Visual (picture)

2. Acoustic (sound)

3. Semantic (meaning)

For example, how do you remember a telephone number you have looked up in the phone book?  If you can see it then you are using visual coding, but if you are repeating it to yourself you are using acoustic coding (by sound).

Evidence suggests that this is the principle coding system in short term memory (STM) is acoustic coding.  When a person is presented with a list of numbers and letters, they will try to hold them in STM by rehearsing them (verbally).  Rehearsal is a verbal process regardless of whether the list of items is presented acoustically (someone reads them out), or visually (on a sheet of paper).

The principle encoding system in long term memory (LTM) appears to be semantic coding (by meaning).  However, information in LTM can also be coded both visually and acoustically.


2. Memory Storage

This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.e. where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts for (duration), how much can be stored at any time (capacity) and what kind of information is held.  The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it.  There has been a significant amount of research regarding the differences between Short Term Memory (STM ) and Long Term Memory(LTM).

Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory.  Miller (1956) put this idea forward and he called it the magic number 7.  He though that short-term memory capacity was 7 (plus or minus 2) items because it only had a certain number of “slots” in which items could be stored.

However, Miller didn’t specify the amount of information that can be held in each slot.  Indeed, if we can “chunk” information together we can store a lot more information in our short-term memory.  In contrast the capacity of LTM is thought to be unlimited.

Information can only be stored for a brief duration in STM (0-30 seconds), but LTM can last a lifetime.


3. Memory Retrieval

This refers to getting information out storage.  If we can’t remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it.  When we are asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between STM and LTM become very clear.

STM is stored and retrieved sequentially.  For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information.

LTM is stored and retrieved by association.  This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it.

Organizing information can help aid retrieval.  You can organize information in sequences (such as alphabetically, by size or by time).  Imagine a patient being discharged from hospital whose treatment involved taking various pills at various times, changing their dressing and doing exercises.  If the doctor gives these instructions in the order which they must be carried out throughout the day (i.e. in sequence of time), this will help the patient remember them.


Criticisms of Memory Experiments

A large part of the research on memory is based on experiments conducted in laboratories.  Those who take part in the experiments – the participants – are asked to perform tasks such as recalling lists of words and numbers.  Both the setting – the laboratory – and the tasks are a long way from everyday life.  In many cases, the setting is artificial and the tasks fairly meaningless.  Does this matter?

Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings.  An experiment has high ecological validity if its findings can be generalized, that is applied or extended, to settings outside the laboratory.

It is often assumed that if an experiment is realistic or true-to-life, then there is a greater likelihood that its findings can be generalized.  If it is not realistic (if the laboratory setting and the tasks are artificial) then there is less likelihood that the findings can be generalized.  In this case, the experiment will have low ecological validity.

Many experiments designed to investigate memory have been criticized for having low ecological validity.  First, the laboratory is an artificial situation.  People are removed from their normal social settings and asked to take part in a psychological experiment.  They are directed by an ‘experimenter’ and may be placed in the company of complete strangers.  For many people, this is a brand new experience, far removed from their everyday lives.  Will this setting affect their actions, will they behave normally?

Often, the tasks participants are asked to perform can appear artificial and meaningless.  Few, if any, people would attempt to memorize and recall a list of unconnected words in their daily lives.  And it is not clear how tasks such as this relate to the use of memory in everyday life.  The artificiality of many experiments has led some researchers to question whether their findings can be generalized to real life.  As a result, many memory experiments have been criticized for having low ecological validity.

References

Matlin, M. W. (2005). Cognition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63 (2): 81–97.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Cognitive psychology (2 nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.


How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Stages of memory – encoding storage and retrieval. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html